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Leafy and bare trees in New Jersey. Full moon. Blade infiltrates a vampire's safehouse and torches it. Meanwhile, government agents research vampires. Later, Blade goes out on a date with Susan. Blade gets a phone call that Fofo is in the hospital. Blade sees through the trap and leaves the hospital, but is attacked and captured by vampires. Valencia interrogates the captured Blade while Bitsy watches. Blade breaks free and kills them. When he makes it outside he finds governments agents who were waiting to kill him tied up.
He's attacked by Rowkis, who then lets him go. While Greg Willis sails with his parents, a weird spatial anomaly appears during an unexpected storm. It sucks Greg up then disappears, leaving him floating in the water. Blade wakes up at Rosa's place. Meanwhile, Rowkis brings the government agents to Queen Cilla. Later, Blade asks another vampire group for information and they come up with a plan to stop Queen Cilla.
Susan is captured by Rowkis and Blade goes to save her. When he arrives at the secret hideout, he's tricked by Queen Cilla into having sex with her. Blade then rescues the government agents and kills Rowkis, but Queen Cilla gets away. Later, he regroups with Rosa, Cesar, and Fofo. I don't have this issue, but in GR3 2 Chloe notes that she and Johnny Blaze had a discussion "last night.
The Grizzly leaves prison and decides to go straight after getting some education in the joint. X-Force goes on a mission to arrest a Central American general wanted for crimes against humanity, but the mission goes badly. On this mission, Orphan ignores a little girl knelling among the dead. X-Force returns home from their Central American mission. This segment occurs before TOD4 1. Rosa has set up a job for Blade, and at the meeting he's asked to dig up a dead husband.
Blade listens to the widow's story. Blade goes to the cemetery and digs up the husband's grave, but there's no body inside. They go back to the widow's house and the husband eventually shows up as a vampire. Blade kills him and leaves. We see green trees in Maryland. On a "Saturday morning," an injured Johnny Blaze awakens and demands an exorcism from a priest. Green grass and trees in Maryland. We see green grass and trees as Kitty walks across the campus of the University of Chicago, mulling over the destruction of Genosha and passing the booths of advocacy groups, including Citizens for Humanity.
On the way home, she witnesses an explosion in a high-rise and helps victims escape the fire. X-Force are set up on a mission to reclaim a space station taken over by prison inmates mutated by the CIA, under the guise of a mission to save earth from aliens. Dead Girl joins the team. Edie Sawyer dies. It is "weeks" before XS 1 , "months" before XS 10, and presumably just under "four months" before XS 2 , but that last reference may be wrong.
He fails, and is punished by the Director. In WX 0. The Director has a folder on his desk in which we see photos of Wolvie and Deadpool. We see this exact same folder on his desk, with the exact same photos, in WX 0. This is probably the only clue we have to placing this sequence, other than the fact that Wolvie has two good eyes here, placing it after W2 Kitty fights a bunch of anti-mutant students and gets academic probation and an order to undergo mandatory psychological counseling, which we see begin in MEK 1 Kitty's appearance in XX 19 must be after this story, as this occurrence of "trouble at school" is mentioned in XX And given that the psychological counseling that is supposed to begin "immediately" starts in MEK 1, both XX 19 and the MEK series must span a short amount of time after this.
Orphan announces that Edie Sawyer is dead and the media have a field day. Spike notes that X-Force will be looking at replacements "tomorrow. The Director ruminates on past events up through W2 which places WX 0. We see several scenes on the Director's screens on page 12, but nothing all that "current" to indicate what other events might be taking place "now. The Director decides that it's time for a draft of new operatives in this issue p.
Agent X arrives badly injured at Sandi's apartment. He is given the name "Alex Hayden" and Sandi asks Taskmaster to train him. Meanwhile, Higaski struggles to assert his authority as the new leader of the Four Winds organization. Elektra explains that she's been killing out of boredom and invites Frank to dinner "tomorrow night. Police sergeant Frank Gunzer enters a hostage situation in which a man kills his daughter and shoots Gunzer's partner Sammy before being killed by backup cops.
Gunz then sees a blond girl who speaks an ominous message of death before disappearing. While fighting a fire, fireman James MacDonald sees the blond girl, who gives the same ominous message of death before mysteriously vanishing again. Montez encounters the blond girl and her disappearing act at the car wreck.
Gunz shows up and they start to compare notes with MacDonald. This segment is noted in COD:W 1 as having occurred "the other day. At the hospital, Montez, MacDonald, and Gunz compare notes about the blond girl. On a "Sunday afternoon," Gunmetal Gray catches up with Ghost Rider and blows his head off, but Ghost Rider's head reassembles and he gets away. On "Sunday evening," Gunmetal uses a truck full of liquid nitrogen on Ghost Rider, but fails to kill him.
Johnny Blaze reveals to Gunmetal that he himself is Ghost Rider. Just as Gunmetal is about to pop Johnny, the police show up, and Gunmetal goes one way and Johnny goes another with a guy named Juneau. Juneau leads Johnny to an encampment in Illinois, but Johnny turns to Ghost Rider and heads to Chicago, where he finds that Gunmetal has roughed up Smith, creating a grudge match with Ghost Rider. Gunmetal kills Detective Smith. Taskmaster begins to train Agent X on "training day one.
Washout and other hopefuls audition for a spot on X-Force in the Mohave Desert. Washout is transformed into a water-based life form. MacDonald is placed off duty for "seven days" and he watches his "brothers" go out on a call. Green trees in New York. This segment should occur after PUN6 27 Elektra is now in Miami, still job hunting.
A few days after getting out of prison, the Grizzly gets his first welfare check and puts his ad in the personals looking for an "animal lover picnic partner. Marrow is not present, presumably because her surgery of WX:M 1 has not yet occurred.
Sauron flies to Xavier's to recruit Emma Frost, who is seen with the diamond-like skin she acquires in X Frost takes control of Sauron's mind and sends him away to fetch his "plan B" recruit. Green grass and trees in New York. It is Agent X's "training day two. He then sees the Rhino everywhere he goes, later that night he has a few drinks at the V-Bar and after the Rhino steals his last little piece of toilet paper they start fighting and break the wall; outside Spider-Man beats them and leaves them tied up.
This story is a follow-up to PUN6 17, and it's clear that Logan and the Punisher haven't seen each other since then, so this story must occur before PUN6 Upset about Logan's handling of Johnny Delacavva, the Punisher goes after the mutant, who defeats him. Green grass and bushes. While traveling for "six weeks" recruiting mutants for the Institute, Scott Summers meets a boy surnamed Landru. All that time, Stacy X has used her power to distract the Vanisher.
Shortly before the arranged meeting seen in UX On "training day three," Agent X gets beaten up by Taskmaster. It is "a few days" before AX 1 On "Wednesday" at " A. It is shortly after UX The X-Men put the Vanisher out of business. Nathan saves a bunch of children from death at the order of Pakistani General Daid-Khan, who is killed.
Nathan encounters Nigel Novotny, aka Blaquesmith. Snow on the ground in the mountains of Kashmir. While Sauron recruits Jack in Australia where we see green grass and trees , the Director, Agent Jackson, and Kane discuss the probability of success for other Weapon X members on a night with a full moon. Grizzly gets somebody answering for his personal ad but realizes he's out of practice.
Later the Rhino, who also just got a date, cheers him up telling him a thing he learned "lately" in TW don't try to be something you're not and just be yourself. Grizzly goes back and sets up a date for "tomorrow at " at the zoo. This segment must occur after Aurora's appearance with Alpha Flight in W2 Nathan and Blaquesmith leave the Kashmir village at sunrise.
It is "three months" before WX:WC 1 Sauron returns from Australia with Jack in a box. We see an uninjured Kane here, so this segment occurs before WX:M 1 The Inhumans play ball on the moon. The snow and bare trees in New York must be topical. A mutant community is starting to grow in Alphabet City. Paris is probably rebuilding BTS. The Grizzly hides thinking his date is an approaching fat lady and a zoo guard fires him a dart putting him to sleep, thus missing his date.
At night the Grizzly apologizes through the internet and manages to get another date. The Weapon X program transforms Marrow's body to pass for normal. It is right after her surgery that Marrow is given her orders, which other Weapon X inductees already received in WX:S 1 Johnny meets a girl named Piston and they go to a bar. Gunmetal catches up with Johnny and a chase ensues, culminating in the death of Gunmetal's friend Magnus. Johnny calls Chloe to say goodbye.
Green trees in South Dakota. It is "several days" before INH4 1 Several Inhumans are subjected to the Terrigen Mists. San assumes a smaller, weaker form. Orphan announces that X-Force is now X-Statix. The Grizzly finds out his "cyber date" is actually the Rhino. The Grizzly decides to go back to crime. Al Kraven tries to stop the Punisher from killing a couple of guys but the Punisher knock him out and proceeds to kill the guys.
Spider-Man shows up and after fighting another villains the Grizzly among them, back in crime after TW 19 , he meets Timber Hughs Kraven's girlfriend , Al reveals knowing Peter's identity. Later somebody claiming to be the real Kraven states he got them both there, then leaves. Thinking that it was the Chameleon, Spidey and Alyosha head to the facility where he is being kept and find him there.
Later at the zoo, as Spidey explains Alyosha why his wife left him, the fake Kraven shows up again and again escapes after a fight. Later they find it was the Chameleon disguised as Kraven. Al and Spidey leave as friends. This story must occur before GR5 6-FB There, he has a final showdown with Gunmetal and comes to terms with hosting Ghost Rider.
Then he hooks up with Piston. The Beast comments that Xavier is walking again, putting this issue after X Mention is made of the "trouble" that Kitty got into at school in XU Storm is in a wheelchair here, still recovering from injuries sustained in XX 18, so this story must occur before X , and most likely before X According to Jeph, Logan is here after DP3 The reference to "Thanksgiving season" in the opening narrative must be topical - there is no reference to the holiday in the story, so it can be interpreted as meaning the X-Men's thanksgiving for surviving the Khan invasion.
Tony Robb has his 72nd homer of the season on "a balmy summer night in Baltimore. Elektra is in Rio de Janiero, still job hunting. On "Aug. Sandi complains that Taskmaster is not making enough progress with Agent X. Sarah and Gabriel do a job for Bruce. Resuming his "training, day four," Agent X is helped by Outlaw, and Sandi shows him the cemetery in which he was buried. The widow meets with Rosa and attends a Vampire Victims Anonymous meeting.
Tony Robb goes for his 73rd homer and is shot by Earl Whitacker, who is subdued by Nightcrawler. It is a "week" before XF2 2 Elektra is in Paris, still job hunting. On "training day five," Agent X defeats the Taskmaster. MacDonald and company are called to a fire in a crack house. Firemen Meat and Berelli encounter the blond girl in the burning crack house. Montez arrives on the scene and finds out about the sighting. Fireman Newmeier is badly burned.
Arnie Lundberg laments the passing of Edie Sawyer. Green trees in California. MEKANIX 1 In the aftermath of Kitty's altercation in XU 36, she and her entire advanced physics tutorial class appear as targets on the Purity website on a "Wednesday night," although given the passage of time in this story, this segment must occur on a Tuesday night.
This segment probably occurs after XX 19 On "job hunting, day one," a theme park owner hires Agent X to retrieve his park animals, which were set loose by Four Winds. San thinks about his transformation. Doop is given an assignment to deal with the unstable recruit, Corkscrew. It is "five days" before XS 1 It must be shortly after XU 36, as the psychological counseling mandated by the probation she is granted in that issue begins here.
Kitty's letter of probation, shown here, refers to her discussion with the dean in XU 36 as being "recent" and her counseling as being "effective immediately. I propose that what we see here is a short summer quarter. Agent X retrieves the park animals and warns Four Winds to stay clear of the park, which is now deeded to Agent X.
Taskmaster refers a job to pursue the Punisher to Alex. Agent X and Outlaw pursue the Punisher but lose him. Doop's assignment with Corkscrew finds them alone in the woods. A moping San is summoned to the Inhumans' Royal Palace. Tonaja is summoned to the Inhumans' Royal Palace. Gunz and Sammy try to nail a drug trafficking ring and Gunz visits his father at a nursing home.
Green grass and trees on Long Island. Elektra is in Prague, still job hunting. The Punisher defeats Agent X and Outlaw. Agent X attacks Taskmaster for setting him up with the Punisher gig. Shola Inkosi, a Genoshan student at the University of Chicago, is haunted by the destruction of his homeland.
Kitty and her fellow students in Dr. Benes' physics tutorial run a test, but the experiment is sabotaged by anti-mutant students so that the mutant they suspect will be exposed. Kitty, Shan, and Shola contain the disaster caused by the lab sabotage and Shola is revealed publicly as a mutant in the process. More Doop and Corkscrew in the woods. It is "eight days" before ELEK2 But there are independent reasons for believing that they were originally gods or demi-gods.
It is a reasonable conjecture that the tales of victories over Grendel and the fiery dragon belong properly to the myth of Beaw. If Beowulf, the champion of the Gautar, had already become a theme of epic song, the resemblance of name might easily suggest the idea of enriching his story by adding to it the achievements of Beaw. At the same time, the tradition that the hero of these adventures was a son of Scyld, who was identified whether rightly or wrongly with the eponymus of the Danish dynasty of the Scyldings, may well have prompted the supposition that they took place in Denmark.
There is, as we shall see afterwards, some ground for believing that there were circulated in England two rival poetic versions of the story of the encounters with supernatural beings: the one referring them to Beowulf the Dane, while the other represented by the existing poem attached them to the legend of the son of Ecgtheow, but ingeniously contrived to do some justice to the alternative tradition by laying the scene of the Grendel incident at the court of a Scylding king.
As the name of Beaw appears in the genealogies of English kings, it seems likely that the traditions of his exploits may have been brought over by the Angles from their continental home. This supposition is confirmed by evidence that seems to show that the Grendel legend was popularly current in this country. There are, indeed, some reasons for suspecting that the blending of the stories of the mythic Beaw and the historical Beowulf may have been the work of Scandinavian and not of English poets.
In each, a hero from Gautland slays a destructive monster at the court of a Danish king, and afterwards is found fighting on the side of Eadgils Adils in Sweden. This coincidence cannot well be due to mere chance; but its exact significance is doubtful. On the one hand, it is possible that the English epic, which unquestionably derived its historical elements from Scandinavian song, may be indebted to the same source for its general plan, including the blending of history and myth.
On the other hand, considering the late date of the authority for the Scandinavian traditions, we cannot be sure that the latter may not owe some of their material to English minstrels. There are similar alternative possibilities with regard to the explanation of the striking resemblances which certain incidents of the adventures with Grendel and the dragon bear to incidents in the narratives of Saxo and the Icelandic sagas.
Date and Origin. The conjecture that most naturally presents itself to those who have made no special study of the question, is that an English epic treating of the deeds of a Scandinavian hero on Scandinavian ground must have been composed in the days of Norse or Danish dominion in England. This, however, is impossible. The forms under which Scandinavian names appear in the poem show clearly that these names must have entered English tradition not later than the beginning of the 7th century.
It does not indeed follow that the extant poem is of so early a date; but its syntax is remarkably archaic in comparision with that of the Old English poetry of the 8th century. The hypothesis that Beowulf is in whole or in part a translation from a Scandinavian original, although still maintained by some scholars, introduces more difficulties than it solves, and must be dismissed as untenable.
The limits of this article do not permit us to state and criticize the many elaborate theories that have been proposed respecting the origin of the poem. All that can be done is to set forth the view that appears to us to be most free from objection. It may be premised that although the existing MS. In its original form, Beowulf was a product of the time when poetry was composed not to be read, but to be recited in the halls of kings and nobles.
Of course an entire epic could not be recited on a single occasion; nor can we suppose that it would be thought out from beginning to end before any part of it was presented to an audience. A singer who had pleased his hearers with a tale of adventure would be called on to tell them of earlier or later events in the career of the hero; and so the story would grow, until it included all that the poet knew from tradition, or could invent in harmony with it. That Beowulf is concerned with the deeds of a foreign hero is less surprising than it seems at first sight.
The minstrel of early Germanic times was required to be learned not only in the traditions of his own people, but also in those of the other peoples with whom they felt their kinship. He had a double task to perform. It was not enough that his songs should give pleasure; his patrons demanded that he should recount faithfully the history and genealogy both of their own line and of those other royal houses who shared with them the same divine ancestry, and who might be connected with them by ties of marriage or warlike alliance.
Probably the singer was always himself an original poet; he might often be content to reproduce the songs that he had learned, but he was doubtless free to improve or expand them as he chose, provided that his inventions did not conflict with what was supposed to be historic truth. For all we know, the intercourse of the Angles with Scandinavia, which enabled their poets to obtain new knowledge of the legends of Danes, Gautar and Swedes, may not have ceased until their conversion to Christianity in the 7th century.
And even after this event, whatever may have been the attitude of churchmen towards the old heathen poetry, the kings and warriors would be slow to lose their interest in the heroic tales that had delighted their ancestors. It is probable that down to the end of the 7th century, if not still later, the court poets of Northumbria and Mercia continued to celebrate the deeds of Beowulf and of many another hero of ancient days.
Although the heathen Angles had their own runic alphabet, it is unlikely that any poetry was written down until a generation had grown up trained in the use of the Latin letters learned from Christian missionaries. We cannot determine the date at which some book-learned man, interested in poetry, took down from the lips of a minstrel one of the stories that he had been accustomed to sing.
It may have been before ; much later it can hardly have been, for the old heathen poetry, though its existence might be threatened by the influence of the church, was still in vigorous life. The epic of Beowulf was not the only one that was reduced to writing: a fragment of the song about Finn, king of the Frisians, still survives, and possibly several other heroic poems were written down about the same time.
As originally dictated, Beowulf probably contained the story outlined at the beginning of this article, with the addition of one or two of the episodes relating to the hero himself—among them the legend of the swimming-match. This story had doubtless been told at greater length in verse, but its insertion in its present place is the work of a poet, not of a mere redactor. The other episodes were introduced by some later writer, who had heard recited, or perhaps had read, a multitude of the old heathen songs, the substance of which he piously sought to preserve from oblivion by weaving it in an abridged form, into the texture of the one great poem which he was transcribing.
The Christian passages, which are poetically of no value, are evidently of literary origin, and may be of any date down to that of the extant MS. An interesting light on the history of the written text seems to be afforded by the phenomena of the existing MS. The poem is divided into numbered sections, the length of which was probably determined by the size of the pieces of parchment of which an earlier exemplar consisted.
Now the first fifty-two lines, which are concerned with Scyld and his son Beowulf, stand outside this numbering. It may reasonably be inferred that there once existed a written text of the poem that did not include these lines. Their substance, however, is clearly ancient.
Many difficulties will be obviated if we may suppose that this passage is the beginning of a different poem, the hero of which was not Beowulf the son of Ecgtheow, but his Danish namesake. It is true that Beowulf the Scylding is mentioned at the beginning of the first numbered section; but probably the opening lines of this section have undergone alteration in order to bring them into connexion with the prefixed matter. In G.
Thorkelin, an Icelander, made or procured two transcripts of the poem, which are still preserved in the Royal Library at Copenhagen, and are valuable for the criticism of the text, the MS. The first edition showing competent knowledge of the language was produced in by J.
Since then editions have been very numerous. The text of the poem was edited by C. Autotypes of the MS. The most serviceable separate editions are those of M. Heyne 7th ed. Socin, , A. Wyatt with English notes and glossary, , and F. Holthausen vol.
Eleven English translations of the poem have been published see C. Tinker, The Translations of Beowulf, Among these may be mentioned those of J. Garnett 6th ed. Earle in prose; W. Morris in imitative metre, and almost unintelligibly archaistic in diction; and C. Tinker in prose. For the bibliography of the earlier literature on Beowulf, and a detailed exposition of the theories therein advocated, see R. Much valuable matter may be found in B.
The work of G. Sarrazin, Beowulf-studien , which advocates the strange theory that Beowulf is a translation by Cynewulf of a poem by the Danish singer Starkadr, contains, amid much that is fanciful, not a little that deserves careful consideration. The many articles by E. Sievers and S. Another MS. See Legacy ; Will or Testament. In he was appointed dessinateur de la chambre et du cabinet de Roi, in succession to Gissey, whose pupil he is believed to have been. He furnished designs for the decorations and costumes used in the opera performances, for court festivals, and for public solemnities such as funeral processions, and inspired the ornamentations of rooms and of furniture to such an extent that a French writer says that nothing was done during his later years which he had not designed, or at least which was not in his manner.
He was, in fact, the oracle of taste and the supreme pontiff whose fiat was law in all matters of decoration. His numerous designs were for the most part engraved under his own superintendence, and a collection of them was published in Paris in by his son-in-law, Thuret, clockmaker to the king.
Thus he planned the funeral ceremonies at St Denis on the death of the dauphin, and afterwards made the designs for the obsequies of Louis XIV. He is perhaps best known as an engraver. He was descended in truth from a country innkeeper on the one side, and, on the other, from a tailor in the rue Montorgueil.
Of education, in the narrower sense, he had but little. From the roof of his first school he beheld the capture of the Bastille, and this stirring memory was all that he acquired. In the meanwhile he learned neither Greek nor Latin—not even French, it would appear; for it was after he left school, from the printer Laisney, that he acquired the elements of grammar. His true education was of another sort. In his childhood, shy, sickly and skilful with his hands, as he sat at home alone to carve cherry stones, he was already forming for himself those habits of retirement and patient elaboration which influenced the whole tenor of his life and the character of all that he wrote.
After serving his aunt for some time in the capacity of waiter, and passing some time also in the printing-office of one Laisney, he was taken to Paris by his father. Here he saw much low speculation, and many low royalist intrigues. In , in consequence of a distressing quarrel, he left his father and began life for himself in the garret of his ever memorable song. For two years he did literary hackwork, when he could get it, and wrote pastorals, epics and all manner of ambitious failures.
At the end of that period he wrote to Lucien Bonaparte, enclosing some of these attempts. He was then in bad health, and in the last state of misery. His watch was pledged. Lucien Bonaparte interested himself in the young poet, transferred to him his own pension of francs from the Institute, and set him to work on a Death of Nero.
Boiteau, had been already published by his father, but he set no great store on them himself; and it was only in , while watching by the sick-bed of a friend, that it occurred to him to write down the best he could remember. Next year he was elected to the Caveau Moderne, and his reputation as a song-writer began to spread. It was thus that all his best works went abroad; one man sang them to another over all the land of France.
He was the only poet of modern times who could altogether have dispensed with printing. His first collection escaped censure. The second was more daring. The apathy of the Liberal camp, he says, had convinced him of the need for some bugle call of awakening. This publication lost him his situation in the university, and subjected him to a trial, a fine of francs and an imprisonment of three months. He adds, on the occasion of his second imprisonment, that he found a certain charm in this quiet, claustral existence, with its regular hours and long evenings alone over the fire.
This second imprisonment of nine months, together with a fine and expenses amounting to francs, followed on the appearance of his fourth collection. The government proposed through Laffitte that, if he would submit to judgment without appearing or making defences, he should only be condemned in the smallest penalty.
In the revolution of July he took no inconsiderable part. Copies of his song, Le Vieux Drapeau, were served out to the insurgent crowd. He had been for long the intimate friend and adviser of the leading men; and during the decisive week his counsels went a good way towards shaping the ultimate result.
In , in spite of every possible expression of his reluctance, he was elected to the Constituent Assembly, and that by so large a number of votes , that he felt himself obliged to accept the seat. Not long afterwards, and with great difficulty, he obtained leave to resign. He continued to polish his songs in retirement, visited by nearly all the famous men of France. Nothing could exceed the amiability of his private character; so poor a man has rarely been so rich in good actions; he was always ready to receive help from his friends when he was in need, and always forward to help others.
His correspondence is full of wisdom and kindness, with a smack of Montaigne, and now and then a vein of pleasantry that will remind the English reader of Charles Lamb. He occupied some of his leisure in preparing his own memoirs, and a certain treatise on Social and Political Morality, intended for the people, a work he had much at heart, but judged at last to be beyond his strength.
He died on the 16th July It was feared that his funeral would be the signal for some political disturbance; but the government took immediate measures, and all went quietly. The streets of Paris were lined with soldiers and full of townsfolk, silent and uncovered.
They are elaborate, written in a clear and sparkling style, full of wit and incision. It is not so much for any lyrical flow as for the happy turn of the phrase that they claim superiority. Whether the subject be gay or serious, light or passionate, the medium remains untroubled. The special merits of the songs are merits to be looked for rather in English prose than in English verse.
He worked deliberately, never wrote more than fifteen songs a year and often less, and was so fastidious that he has not preserved a quarter of what he finished. When he first began to cultivate the chanson, this minor form lay under some contempt, and was restricted to slight subjects and a humorous guise of treatment. Gradually he filled these little chiselled toys of verbal perfection with ever more and more of sentiment.
From a date comparatively early he had determined to sing for the people. It was for this reason that he fled, as far as possible, the houses of his influential friends and came back gladly to the garret and the street corner. Thus it was, also, that he came to acknowledge obligations to Emile Debraux, who had often stood between him and the masses as interpreter, and given him the key-note of the popular humour. Now, he had observed in the songs of sailors, and all who labour, a prevailing tone of sadness; and so, as he grew more masterful in this sort of expression, he sought more and more after what is deep, serious and constant in the thoughts of common men.
The evolution was slow; and we can see in his own works examples of every stage, from that of witty indifference in fifty pieces of the first collection, to that of grave and even tragic feeling in Les Souvenirs du peuple or Le Vieux Vagabond. And this innovation involved another, which was as a sort of prelude to the great romantic movement. For the chanson, as he says himself, opened up to him a path in which his genius could develop itself at ease; he escaped, by this literary postern, from strict academical requirements, and had at his disposal the whole dictionary, four-fifths of which, according to La Harpe, were forbidden to the use of more regular and pretentious poetry.
If he still kept some of the old vocabulary, some of the old imagery, he was yet accustoming people to hear moving subjects treated in a manner more free and simple than heretofore; so that his was a sort of conservative reform, preceding the violent revolution of Victor Hugo and his army of uncompromising romantics. For himself and this is the third point of importance he had a strong sense of political responsibility. Public interest took a far higher place in his estimation than any private passion or favour.
It is by this socialism that he becomes truly modern and touches hands with Burns. Arnould 2 vols. BERAR, known also as the Hyderabad Assigned Districts, formerly a province administered on behalf of the nizam of Hyderabad by the British government, but since the 1st of October under the administration of the commissioner-general for the Central Provinces q. The origin of the name Berar is not known, but may perhaps be a corruption of Vidarbha, the name of a kingdom in the Deccan of which, in the period of the Mahabharata, Berar probably formed part.
The history of Berar belongs generally to that of the Deccan, the country falling in turn under the sway of the various dynasties which successively ruled in southern India, the first authentic records showing it to have been part of the Andhra or Satavahana empire. On the final fall of the Chalukyas in the 12th century, Berar came under the sway of the Yadavas of Deogiri, and remained in their possession till the Mussulman invasions at the end of the 13th century.
On the establishment of the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan Berar was constituted one of the four provinces into which their kingdom was divided, being governed by great nobles, with a separate army. The perils of this system becoming apparent, the province was divided or into two separate governments, named after their capitals Gawil and Mahur.
The Bahmani dynasty was, however, already tottering to its fall; and in Imad-ul-Mulk, governor of Gawil, who had formerly held all Berar, proclaimed his independence and proceeded to annex Mahur to his new kingdom. Imad-ul-Mulk was by birth a Kanarese Hindu, but had been captured as a boy in one of the expeditions against Vijayanagar and reared as a Mussulman. He died in and his direct descendants held the sultanate of Berar until , when Burhan Imad Shah was deposed by his minister Tufal Khan, who assumed the kingship.
This gave a pretext for the intervention of Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar, who in invaded Berar, imprisoned and put to death Tufal Khan, his son Shams-ul-Mulk, and the ex-king Burhan, and annexed Berar to his own dominions. In Sultan Murad, son of the emperor Akbar, besieged Ahmednagar, and was bought off by the formal cession of Berar.
Towards the close of the 17th century the province began to be overrun by the Mahrattas, and in the Delhi government formally recognized their right to levy blackmail chauth on the unhappy population. The claim was contested by the Bhonsla rajas, and for more than half a century the miserable country was ground between the upper and the nether millstone. By the partition treaty of Hyderabad these ceded territories in Berar were transferred to the nizam, together with some tracts about Sindkhed and Jalna which had been held by Sindhia.
By a treaty of , which extinguished the Mahratta right to levy chauth, the Wardha river was fixed as the eastern boundary of Berar, the Melghat and adjoining districts in the plains being assigned to the nizam in exchange for the districts east of the Wardha held by the peshwa. Though Berar was no longer oppressed by its Mahratta taskmasters nor harried by Pindari and Bhil raiders, it remained long a prey to the turbulent elements let loose by the sudden cessation of the wars.
From time to time bands of soldiery, whom the government was powerless to control, scoured the country, and rebellion succeeded rebellion till , when the last fight against open rebels took place at Chichamba near Risod. Under British control Berar rapidly recovered its prosperity. See Imperial Gazetteer of India Oxford, , and authorities there quoted.
In he was called to a chair of medicine at Paris, which he held for three years; he was then nominated professor of hygiene at Montpellier. His health gave way under his labours, and he died in His most important book is his Doctrines des rapports du physique et du moral Paris, He held that consciousness or internal perception reveals to us the existence of an immaterial, thinking, feeling and willing subject, the self or soul.
Alongside of this there is the vital force, the nutritive power, which uses the physical frame as its organ. The soul and the principle of life are in constant reciprocal action, and the first owes to the second, not the formation of its faculties, but the conditions under which they are evolved.
He showed himself unable to understand the points of view of those whom he criticized, and yet his own theories, midway between vitalism and animism, are entirely destitute of originality. Byelgorod; Turk. Arnaut-Beligradi , the capital of a sanjak in the vilayet of Iannina, southern Albania, Turkey; on the river Ergene, Ergeni or Osum, a left-hand tributary of the Semeni. Berat is a fortified town, situated in a fertile valley, which produces wine, olive-oil, fruit and grain.
It is the see of an Orthodox metropolitan, and the inhabitants, of whom two-thirds are Albanian and the remainder principally Greek, are equally divided in religion between Christianity and Islam. It is situated at the confluence of the Beraun with the Litawa river, and is the seat of important textile industry, sugar-refining, corn-milling and brewing.
Lime-kilns and the manufacture of cement, and smelting and iron works are carried on in the environs. Beraun is a place of immemorial antiquity. In Zizka stormed the town, which later on was retaken and devastated by the troops of Duke Leopold, bishop of Passau. The town is on the right bank of the Nile, ft. Berber derived its importance from being the starting-point of the caravan route, m.
It was also one of the principal stopping-places between Cairo and Khartum. The caravan route to the Red Sea was superseded in by a railway, which leaves the Wadi Halfa-Khartum line at the mouth of the Atbara. Berber thus lost the Red Sea trade. It remains the centre and market-place for the produce of the Nile valley for a considerable distance.
East of the town is an immense plain, which, if irrigated, would yield abundant crops. Berber, or El Mekerif, is a town of considerable antiquity. Before its conquest by the Egyptians in its ruler owed allegiance to the kings of Sennar.
It was captured by the Mahdists on the 26th of May , and was re-occupied by the Anglo-Egyptian army on the 6th of September It was the capital of the mudiria until , in which year the headquarters of the province were transferred to Ed Damer, a town near the confluence of the Nile and Atbara. At the northern end of the mudiria is Abu Hamed q. The best-known of the tribes inhabiting the province are the Hassania, Jaalin, Bisharin and Kimilab. During the Mahdia most of these tribes suffered severely at the hands of the dervishes.
In the total population of the province was estimated at 83, It has since considerably increased. The riverain population is largely engaged in agriculture, the chief crops cultivated being durra, barley, wheat and cotton. Berbera stands at the head of a deep inlet which forms the only completely sheltered haven on the south side of the Gulf of Aden. The harbour is eleven to thirteen fathoms deep at the entrance indicated by a lighthouse , decreasing to five fathoms near the shore.
Ocean-going steamers find ample accommodation. There are two piers and numerous warehouses. The town is built in two divisions—the native town to the east, the new town, laid out by the Egyptians , to the west. The majority of the better-class houses are of rubble, one-storeyed and flat-roofed. The public buildings include the fort, hospital and barracks.
There are a Roman Catholic mission-house and convent and a government school. The affairs of the town are administered by a municipality. The water-supply is brought to the town by an aqueduct from the hills some 8 m. The bulk of the inhabitants are Somali, who have abandoned a nomadic life and adopted largely the ways of the Arab and Indian traders.
The permanent population is under 10,; but from October to April the population rises to 30, or more by the arrival of caravans from Ogaden and Dolbahanta. The traders bring with them tents on the backs of camels and these are pitched near the native town. Their merchandise consists of sheep and goats, gum and resin, skins and ostrich feathers. The trade is almost entirely with Aden, of which Berbera may be considered a commercial dependency.
The chief articles of import are cotton goods European white longcloth and American grey shirting , rice and jowari, flour, dates, sugar and tobacco the last from Rotterdam. Berbera is said to have been founded by the Ptolemies among the Barbari of the adjacent coast lands.
It fell subsequently into the possession of Arabs and was included in the Mahommedan state of Adel. At the time of the visit to the town of R. Burton and J. Speke it was governed by its own sheiks. In it was claimed by the khedive Ismail, but was not permanently occupied by Egypt until Canadine is a tetrahydroberberine. Its constitution was worked out by W.
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