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sary hamzah emara forex capital markets

Funding: This research did not receive any financial support. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Abstract. Arfaoui, Mongi and Ben Rejeb, Aymen (): Return dynamics and volatility spillovers between FOREX and MENA stock markets: what to remember for portfolio. the Malaysian stock market lost 75 percent of its sary of the Muslim should come in confluence Islamic Scholar: Sheikh Hamza Yusuf Hanson. ADYEN CRYPTOCURRENCY

Election day saw widespread violence, and the government called in the Arab Legion to restore order in Amman. At least 10 civilians were killed, but the electoral process continued. The Press and Publication and Political Party laws strengthened government control. A new Law of Municipalities granted the Council of Ministers the authority to request the resignation of locally elected mayors or presidents of municipal councils when it objected to their decisions, and the Law of Preaching in the Mosques required sheikhs to obtain permits from the Chief Justice, who also had the authority to revoke these permits at any time.

Nevertheless, the opposition continued to challenge domestic and international policies. They took their demands to the streets as well, culminating in October in popular demonstrations in Amman, Nablus, and Ramallah. The Arab Legion was called in to restore order, and once again, Abu al-Huda resigned. Despite popular opposition, he preferred to remain in alliance with Iraq and Great Britain. He announced that Jordan would not join the Baghdad Pact, and then he imposed a national curfew. Yet, demonstrations continued.

Led by the National Socialist, Communist, and Liberation parties, people rallied for new elections, the abrogation of the Anglo—Jordanian Treaty, and a replacement of the British subsidy by Egyptian, Syrian, and Saudi funds. By dismissing him, King Husayn could fend off accusations that the Hashemites were pawns of the British and promote the notion that domestic politics were played fairly. King Husayn was wrong. Abu Nawwar used his position as Chief of General Staff to bring nationalists to positions of power.

King Husayn recognized their success, calling on Sulayman al-Nabulsi, head of the National Socialist Party, to form a new leftistdominated government on October 29, Ostensibly, their mission was to protect Jordan from Israeli—British attacks, but their presence threatened the Hashemite regime. Husayn was further threatened when al-Nabulsi asked the Hashemite Iraqi troops to withdraw while allowing Saudi and Syrian troops to remain.

Al-Nabulsi was also prepared for radical domestic changes. He liberalized freedom of speech, the press and publication and allowed Communists to act freely despite the continued application of the Anti-Communist Law.

Unlike King Husayn, the Prime Minister was not alarmed by the threat of communism. Perhaps more strikingly, he was also not determined to protect Jordanian sovereignty. Palace loyalists voiced their intense concern that they were being shut out from power and that the monarchy was threatened.

Husayn knew that without support from the West, 54 Structures of Contestation Jordan was at the mercy of its neighbors. In an effort to halt the movement toward the left, he sent an open letter to al-Nabulsi on February 2nd, focusing on the Communist threat and asking the government to reverse its positions. The cabinet could not reverse these decisions, but it could publicize the rift between the King and the cabinet.

Parliamentary members objected to the Doctrine, in which the United States offered aid and military assistance to Middle Eastern countries willing to join the United States against the Communist bloc. The King favored accepting it. On April 4th, al-Nabulsi announced that the government would accept Soviet aid if offered and would reject American support.

Finding this unacceptable, the King dissolved the government on April 10th. The nationalists mounted one last challenge. The country was ruled by a cabinet, appointed by and responsible to the King, not to parliament. From this time on, the welfare of the people depended on the benevolence of Hussein and his army. Elections were held in and , but they were carried out on an independent basis. The violence culminated in the Jordanian civil war of Black September.

The King also experienced more minor military uprisings in , when the military mutinied at Zarqa in response to increased prices, pay inequities, and alleged corruption. In Article 3, the King established a multiparty system. It gave the King the power to appoint the Prime Minister, dismiss all ministers, preside over government, dissolve the Chamber of Representatives by decree, and go directly to the people with referenda. The constitution was accepted in a popular referendum by 80 percent of the population.

The MP, the Liberal Party, and the Independents supported the document, favoring it because it stressed respect for national sovereignty, the independence of the judiciary, and the prohibition of one party rule. The Istiqlal accepted, although with reservations. At the elections, however, it was clear that the King did not see himself in the same partnership as the Istiqlal. Although the palace allowed the opposition to campaign freely, the King and his allies created a strong pro-palace coalition, the Front for the Defense of Constitutional Institutions FDIC ,67 in an attempt to counter the parties.

Then, even though the loyalist FDIC did not win a simple majority of the seats it obtained 69 seats, while other parties got 75 , the King asked its members to form the government. With 69 seats, the opposition front created a legislative impasse, and after two years the legislature had passed virtually no legislation. In the meantime, domestic economic conditions worsened. A series of strikes and unrest ensued, culminating in the Casablanca riots of March 9, In an attempt to restore calm and shore up his own position, King Hasan II invoked Article 35 of the Constitution and declared a state of emergency.

He publicly blamed the political parties for failing to pass legislation and discrediting the democratization process. Political freedoms of speech and association were limited, and all efforts were made to discredit, marginalize, and repress opposition actors.

The army was brought in and given increased authority. The democratization process in Morocco appeared to have been shortlived. After elections in , independents and loyalists dominated the legislature. Independents won the remainder. Domestic violence was also increasing. The King and his opposition had been involved in a cycle of violence and repression since , with intellectuals and students at the forefront of the unrest.

On May 4, , it escalated with a general strike of students in Rabat, spreading to the popular quarters. The Constitution gave the King wide powers: He had the ability to appoint the prime minister and other ministers, dissolve parliament, declare a state of emergency, and rule by decree. None of this was acceptable to the opposition forces, and unrest continued. Seeing the parties as intransigent, the King relied more on patronage to obtain support.

In turn, however, the national welfare declined, charges of corruption increased, and general discontent rose dramatically. By , the King had lost the support of the armed forces, his most important allies. On July 10, , the military reacted to the growing national unrest, mounting an attempted coup at Skhirat during a party at the palace. The King, invoking his religious role, asked the dissident troops to join him in praying, and the troops abandoned their cause.

Pretending to be the pilot, he radioed the military stating that the King had been seriously injured and asking for permission to land. Spurred by attempted military coups and increased domestic unrest, King Hasan II wrote a new Constitution that gave slightly more limited powers to the palace: The King shared the role of revising the Constitution with the parliament, and some administrative powers were delegated to the prime minister. Yet, the fundamental supremacy of the King was unaffected.

The opposition parties, now formed as the National Bloc, still rejected the reforms. The King and the parties were engaged in a stalemate. He was not willing to grant the parties the latitude they desired, and the parties were unwilling to accept his rules of the game.

Consequently, the King turned toward repression. He also increased the restriction of opposition movements, abolishing the National Union of Moroccan Students UNEM ,68 the student organization, in and suspending constitutional rights until the plots against the King could be resolved. Furthermore, although 58 Structures of Contestation the Constitution had been approved in a referendum by In reality, the monarch was ruling through exclusive authoritarian rule.

Using a combination of repression and economic measures intended to improve conditions for the elite and bourgeoisie,69 he hoped to save his political neck. He did, and his luck, or barakah blessings , improved. By Spain had acquiesced to international pressure to relinquish its remaining colonies, including its control over the Western Sahara or Spanish Sahara. It was also tied historically to the Alawite dynasty; thus Muhammad V had made the initial claim to the territory in , and Hasan II renewed the claim in before the International Court of Justice.

In October, the Court recognized the competing claims of Morocco and Mauritania, arguing that self-determination under the UN Charter would supersede their temporary control. This gave Hasan II a reason to assert control over the territory and provided an opportunity to rally domestic support. After almost a decade of violence and repression, and now coupled with the popular support gained from the Green March, the parties realized that they were unable to topple the King.

In addition, the attempted military coups had frightened some opposition groups as much as they had the King. Consequently, they established their willingness to accept the Constitution; the King called for new elections; and a political bargain was struck.

Not all political forces were allowed into the system, however. UNEM, the Movement of March 23, and other forces that had shown themselves either too strong or intransigent during the previous decade would be excluded. Others, such as the Communist Party, would be allowed to reorganize in a more moderate form, in this case under the name Party of Progress and Socialism PPS.

Although they had no legitimate voice in the political system, both masses and incumbent elites recognized their presence and knew their demands. In Morocco the King created a division between legal and illegal opposition elites. This division increased as the economic crisis continued, making legal political opponents increasingly reluctant to mobilize popular protests.

In contrast, the Jordanian monarch did not foster a division between moderate and radical elites. Consequently, political opponents remained willing to mobilize popular opposition to challenge the government. Through their different approaches to political opposition, the monarchs created very different government—opposition structures. In Morocco, a large and increasingly fragmented set of political parties was allowed to participate in the formal political system. See Appendix. Despite their potential for anti-regime activity, however, King Hasan II allowed the growth of the Islamist opposition in the early s as a counterweight to his secularist opponents.

He thus created and fostered divisions among opposition groups. King Husayn, on the other hand, kept all opposition illegal. As the Appendix shows, a wide range of political forces existed in Jordan, but they were not allowed to participate openly in the formal political sphere. Only the Muslim Brotherhood would be permitted to organize openly, and it would do so as a charitable society.

Indeed, he allowed the Muslim Brotherhood to operate as a charitable society in order to counter leftist opponents,74 and he played upon divisions between Jordanians of Palestinian and Transjordanian origin. However, in the formal political system, he did not separate opponents into legal and illegal factions. All parties were illegal until the early s, when they were all allowed to enter the formal political sphere.

In terms of our model, Morocco had a divided SoC after , while Jordan did not. Nasir moved quickly to consolidate power after wresting control from King Faruk. Sadat would take steps to include limited political opposition after , but the level of inclusion was so minimal and short-lived that it did not serve to divide the opposition effectively. By September, they had established Agrarian Reform Laws intended to weaken the landed aristocracy.

They also implemented liberal reforms — releasing political prisoners, punishing corruption, lifting censorship, abolishing the secret police, and promising constitutional rule. Nasir and his compatriots were less intent, however, on establishing democratic freedoms.

Socialism, not democracy, was the call of revolutionary movements of the time, and by the end of the decade, Nasir had quashed civil and political liberties in an attempt to shore up both the movement and his own personal power. The leadership formally abolished the monarchy and dismantled political parties in the new Constitution of Yet it was intended more to depoliticize Egypt than to mobilize the polity.

The showdown between Nasir and those demanding a return to a parliamentary system — largely found in the trade unions and professional associations — ended in co-optation of willing forces and repression of stalwart opponents. A new constitution, put to a referendum in , created a presidency with vast powers. The 62 Structures of Contestation government would have effective veto power over leadership decisions.

Public debates on political issues were strictly prohibited, and the heavy-handed nature of the state ensured that discussions remained limited to close friends and relatives. Indeed, Nasir had appointed him as Vice President largely because he was relatively weak and did not appear to have strongly held, independent preferences. Sadat received the unanimous endorsement of parliament and won the referendum for President with He did so through major foreign and domestic policy changes.

He had re-organized the cabinet 14—16 May ; appointed key governors 14—16 May ; had parliamentary immunity lifted and eighteen members expelled from the National Assembly 14 May ; had street demonstrations in his support 15 May ; purged the police, intelligence and information apparatuses 16—17 May ; appointed a provisional secretariat of the Arab Socialist Union 17 May ; disbanded the ASU Central Committee and replaced it with the National Assembly 20 May ; set up a committee to carry out elections to the ASU 20 May and a committee to write a new constitution 27 May ; and had come to terms with the Soviets 25—27 May , whose domestic fellow-travelers were taking the political heat.

Everything will be covered by a law, every person and every measure will have a law of its own. Liberalization weakened his opponents. He had also begun to build a base of support among the middle class. As we will discuss more fully in Chapter 4, he announced the formation of platforms within the ASU and then, in the Political Parties Law of , legalized political parties.

Relatively strong included opponents matched strong political forces outside the system. These groups were engaged with each other in a struggle over control of the rules of the game, as well as with the incumbents over political control. Such a lesson is not easily forgotten. Elections would be held regularly after , with the number of legal political parties expanding to 13 by the early s. The licensing of political parties was restricted, however. The party law established under Sadat remained in effect, banning any parties established on the basis of class, sect, community, geography, race, origin, religion, or creed.

Many were Islamist groups, for while the Muslim Brotherhood was allowed to operate openly as we will discuss more fully in Chapter 3 , it nevertheless remained illegal. First, the distinction between regime types and SoCs is obvious. There is a lot of room within regime types for minor but important shifts in the rules of the political game. These shifts, when they concern which political opponents may participate in the formal system and which may not, can lead to changes in SoCs.

Thus, in monarchies and revolutionary authoritarian regimes, SoCs may change. The second observation is more problematic. To discuss the theoretical implications of different government—opposition relationships, it is useful to create ideal types of SoCs.

In reality, however, the borders between these ideal types are fuzzy. Our Shia and our lovers were created from the clay that was leftover from our creation. Therefore, on the Day of Judgement, all of the people will be called by their names and the name of their mothers, except for our Shia and our lovers.

They will be called by their names and the names of their fathers. The Prophet was sitting by the well of Um Ibrahim and his companions were sitting around him when they saw Ali bin Abi Taleb coming toward them. No one made room for him to sit, so the Prophet O people! I will surely intercede on their behalf because they are my followers. And those who follow me are from me. My intercession is a tradition that applied at the time of Ibrahim, and I am from Ibrahim and he is from me.

It is in Paradise and it has one thousand stairs. The distance between each stair is the distance that a Persian horse will run in one month. The stairs are made of diamonds, aquamarines, corundum, silver, and gold. On the Day of Judgement, it will be brought and placed in the middle of the ladders of other prophets, and compared to their ladders, my ladder will be like the moon shining amongst the stars.

When we get to the top, I will sit on the highest stair and Ali will sit on the next stair below. Blessed are those who loved him Ali bin Abi Taleb and woe unto those who hated him and lied about him. And there will not remain anyone who hated Ali, fought Ali, or ignored his rights who will not be scared. Rather, they will be trembling with fear and their faces will become dark. Then two angels will approach me: Rizwan, the keeper of Paradise, and Malik, the keeper of Hell. Allah sends them to you.

So take them, O Ahmad! Praise be to Allah who has honoured me with this. Give the keys to my brother, Ali bin Abi Taleb. Which angel are you? How ugly you look and how scary is your face! These are the keys of Hell. The blazes of fire will be flying, the flames will be extremely high, and the heat will be maximized. Take him - he is my enemy, and leave him - he is my friend. If he wants, Ali will move Hell right or left. On that day, Hell will be obeying Ali more than anyone else ever obeyed Ali.

You will stand on the bridge on top of Hell and then people will be ordered to move. They will be with you wherever you are. Those who love you love me, and those who hate you hate me. Your friends are my friends, and your enemies are my enemies. And Allah made Ali my successor and caliph.

Ali is from me and I am from Ali. Those who love him love me, and those who hate him hate me. Even the angels get closer to Allah by increasing their love for Ali. It is the day that Allah ordered me to appoint Ali bin Abi Taleb as the flag so that my nation would be guided by him after me. It is the day that Allah perfected the religion and completed His favour and accepted Islam as a religion for the people. Ali bin Abi Taleb is from me and I am from Ali. He clears the doubts of the creation about my traditions.

He is the Commander of the Believers, the leader of religion, the leader of the companions of Paradise, and the best of successors. I love those who love Ali, and I hate those who hate Ali. I connect with those who connect with Ali, and I dissociate myself from those who dissociate themselves from Ali. I turn away from those who turn away from Ali. I am the friend of his friends, and I am the enemy of his enemies. I am the city of wisdom and Ali is the door, and you cannot enter the city without entering from the door.

Those who think they love me and hate Ali are liars. I swear to Allah, who sent me as a messenger and who chose me from amongst the entire creation, that I did not appoint Ali to be the flag of guidance until Allah ordered me to do so by specifying his name and made following him mandatory on His angels. You are called the Commander of the Believers.

Who appointed you as the Commander of the Believers? Is this true? Those who ignore him ignore me, and those who acknowledge him acknowledge me. Those who deny his Imamate, deny my prophethood. And those who deny his command, deny my message. And those who do not accept his virtues, reduce my virtues. Those who fight him fight me, and those who curse him curse me because he is from me. He was created from my clay. He is the husband of my daughter, Fatema, and he is the father of my sons, Hasan and Husain.

Our enemies are the enemies of Allah, and our friends are the friends of Allah. Mention us with our names and send blessings on us Salawat , and seek refuge with Allah. This will protect you and everything around you from all evil on that day. O Kumail! Allah disciplined the Prophet and the Prophet disciplined me, and I discipline the believers and teach manners to the honourable ones.

I am the founder of every field of knowledge and every secret will be revealed by the QAEM 12th Imam. As long as you do not listen to anything except that which comes from us, you will be part of us. You people need help in learning about everything that exists. When you want to start eating, start with the name of Allah. Nothing can hurt you with His name; it is a cure from illness. Always have someone eat with you and do not be stingy with your food.

Understand that you do not provide sustenance and that Allah will reward you for sharing your food. Take your time when you eat so that those with whom you are eating finish their food and receive their RIZQ sustenance. When you are finished eating, thank Allah for the sustenance, and thank Him loudly so that others hear you and thank Him too, because this will increase your reward.

Do not keep eating until you are full; leave room for water and air. Do not finish all of your food because the Prophet never finished his food. Health is in eating little and drinking little. Prosperity in fortune comes with almsgiving, consolation of the believers, and visiting your relatives. Your relatives are those who are close to us. Be more generous, more kind, and more charitable to the believers from your family than to other believers. Do not turn away the poor even if you can only give them a date or a grape!

The Akhlaaq of a believer is beautified through his humility, made complete through his kindness, honoured through his compassion, and glorified through not participating in hearsay. Do not ever be self-righteous because you will seduce only the foolish and you will lose your real friends.

Every nation has good and bad people. So do not get in a heated argument with those who are ignorant. Always tell the truth. Surround yourself with those who are pious and abandon those who are immoral. Stay away from the hypocrites and do not befriend those who will betray you.

Never knock on the door of the unjust, mingle with them, or earn from them. Do not ever obey them and do not speak in their gatherings about that 59 This means do not eat all of the available food; it does not mean do not complete that which is on your plate. If you have to attend the gatherings of the unjust praise the Lord continuously, entrust your soul to Allah, and seek refuge with Allah from their evil. Say nothing to them, but deny their actions in your heart and glorify the Lord loudly so that they can hear you.

Consequently, they will fear you and you will be protected from their evil. The best thing that Allah loves from His slaves, after testifying in Him and His successors, is beautifying the soul through compassion and patience. There is nothing wrong with people not knowing your secrets. Who is your brother?

Your brother is he who does not let you down in times of difficulty, does not keep quiet when you do something wrong, does not lie to you when you ask him a question, and does not wait to offer his help until he learns that the problem has already been solved. A believer is the mirror of his fellow believer. Believers are brothers and nothing should come between brothers.

If you do not love your brother then you are not his brother. A believer is one who follows us. Those who do not follow us, neglect us and will not be with us. And those who are not with us will be in the lowest levels of Hell. Our secret matters are to be kept secret. If someone discloses them to you and orders you to keep it confidential, do not disclose it. If you disclose it your repentance will not be accepted, and if that happens your destination will be Hell.

Do not teach that which the family of the Prophet a believer who is worthy of such information. Do not teach the disbelievers anything about us because they will change it and will use it against you. The believers, who have died, will come back and will achieve victory with the believers yet to come. Allah will give these believers good in this life and in the Hereafter. You are surrounded by your enemies. You have to live with them, eat with them, and drink with them.

It is possible that you may be wealthier than they are, to their utter disappointment, but Allah will help you and fail them. I swear to Allah that when your leader the 12th Imam appears, your enemies will not eat with you, live near you, or knock on your door. They will not receive any blessings; they will be the dishonoured and the despised ones. They will be captured wherever they go and they will be killed. Praise the Lord and the Imams for this and for every other blessing.

If your sustenance is delayed seek forgiveness and it will come to you. Therefore, if one is not fully aware of these satanic strategies they will seize him. There is no enemy worse than Shaytan and the devils with him, and nothing can hurt you more than they can. Their wish is for you to be with them tomorrow in Hell when they are being tortured, and they will be in Hell eternally and the flames of Hell will never be reduced.

Allah is angry with those who do not guard themselves from Shaytan and the devils with him by using His name and the name of His Prophet and the Imams. The devils will deceive you with themselves, and if that does not work they will deceive you with you. They will beautify your desires to you and they will grant your wishes and your desires.

They will seduce you and make you forget. And then they will order you to commit sins; they will prevent you from performing good deeds; and they will lie to you about Allah. They will make you believe that you are on the right path and you will be seduced. You will commit sins and the punishment for the sinner is Hell. Shaytan is a deceiver, but Allah is the dictator. Shaytan does not divert you to himself. He makes you deviate from Allah and pushes you to disobey Allah, and then you will be troubled.

Shaytan will come to you gently with the best of his tricks and will order you to perform acts of obedience that you enjoy, so you will think he is an honourable angel, but he is really the accursed Shaytan. And once you trust him he will order you to commit the greatest of sins, the sins from which you cannot be saved.

Shaytan creates traps for you. Be careful not to fall in them. The earth is full of their traps and no one is safe from the traps except those who hold on to us. Do not be deceived by those who perform long prayers, fast continuously, or give charity and think that they are successful. And then Shaytan guides them toward those leaders who will lead them to Hell, and there will be no help for them on the Day of Judgement.

People either stay on the right path or deviate from it. You only deserve to stay on the right path if you walk the clear and straight road which will not lead you to corruption, the road which will not lead you away from our instructions and that with which we have blessed you. Allah will only question you about your mandatory religious duties; the optional duties are there to help with the great terrors on the Day of Judgement.

Allah is greater than needing your mandatory or optional religious duties or any other good deed or the best of charities; these actions can only benefit you. Your sins are greater than your good deeds, and your negligence is greater than your glorification of Allah. The point of praying, fasting, and giving charity is not the physical action; it is to do them with a pure heart and with true sincerity while bearing the rules of Fiqh in mind in such a way that Allah accepts your deeds. And this should apply to all of your prayers.

Pay attention to the clothes in which you pray and the place in which you pray because if they do not meet the conditions of prayer , your prayer will not be accepted. The tongue reveals that which is in the heart, and the heart survives on food. So watch what you feed your heart and your body, because if your food is not Halaal Allah will not accept your praise and glorification. Listen and understand that we do not allow breech of trust.

Those who tell you otherwise are not speaking the truth and have committed a sin and deserve Hell for their lie. Do not breech the trust of the pious nor the immoral in the greatest or the smallest things, even if it is a thread. Do not go to war except by the order of the just Imam, and do not perform optional religious duties except by the order of the virtuous Imam. I swear to Allah that they would not be accepted. Religion belongs to Allah. So do not be deceived by the words of this deluded nation who denied us after they were guided and refused to obey us after they accepted us.

He ordered the people who were present, including all of his wives, to pay allegiance to him. There were anywhere from forty thousand to one hundred and twenty thousand people present who paid allegiance to the Commander of the Believers, Ali bin Abi Taleb. Befriend his friends and antagonize- O Kumail! Religion belongs to Allah and He does not allow anyone to announce it except the messengers, the prophets, and the Imams.

Positions assigned by Allah are Prophethood and Imamate, and everyone else who claims a position from Allah is an oppressor, invader, or one who has gone astray. Christians did not deny Allah, neither did Jews. They did not even deny Isa or Musa. What they did was they added, removed, and changed things. By doing so, they denied Allah, disbelieved, became accursed, resented, and they did not repent. That is why they are not accepted. Allah accepts only from the pious ones. Allah did not accept the sacrifice of Qabil because he was not a righteous Muslim.

So Qabil envied his brother and killed him. Qabil is one of the twelve prisoners in FALAQ lowest place in Hell , six of the prisoners will be from the beginning of time and six are from the end. Faalaq is the lowest place in Hell, and the steam of Falaq heats Hell. So avoid those whose steam is the source of the heat of Hell. We are truly the pious ones and those who do good. Allah is generous, merciful, great, and patient.

He guided us to become His caliphs, ordered us to lead, and ordered people to follow. So we have fulfilled our duty without disobeying Him and we sent His message to the people without being hypocrites. We believed in His command and accepted it without any doubt. Hell will be for them and they will see the delusion. I swear to Allah that I do not enjoy nor wish to order or stop people, and that I will be despised by the public when I claim the command of the believers and when I am referred to as the Commander of the Believers.

The Prophet gathered the people for seven continuous days, ensuring that everyone would hear the following message he gave on the Minbar: O People! I speak on behalf of Allah; I do not speak of my own inclination. So those who believe me believe Allah, and those who believe Him will be rewarded with Paradise. And those who do not believe me do not believe Allah, and those who do not believe Him will be punished with Hell.

Then the Prophet called me Imam Ali to stand next to him on the Minbar. He placed my head on his chest, and Hasan and Husain were to his right and left. Then he said: O people! The second weight is Ali, my successor, and then his sons, and then after them, their sons.

The first weight testifies for the second weight, and the second weight testifies for the first weight. They will always be together and will not separate until they meet Allah, and then Allah will judge between them and His slaves. If this is our status then why did they usurp our rights and precede us? And why did some of them hold back and not support us? The Prophet informed them of the message of Allah and advised them but they do not like the advisors. The Messenger of Allah told me something which he announced to the supporters from Medina and to the immigrants from Makkah on the afternoon of the fifteenth day of Ramadhan while he was standing on top of his Minbar.

The Prophet said: Ali and my innocent sons, who are his sons, are from me and I am from them. My sons are the best of people after their mother. They are the ark of rescue and those who board it will survive, and those who stay behind will drown. The survivors are in Paradise and those who drown are in Hell. He is the Lord and owner of all virtues. So why do people envy us for virtues that Allah has bestowed on us? Allah also created us before any other creation.

Do they think that they can disconnect us from our Lord with their jealousy? Let those who are not in Paradise be ready for the extreme torture in Hell: everlasting disgrace, shackles, bridles, long chains, large pieces of fire, neighbourhood of every devil, purulent drinks, clothes made of iron, harsh guards, blazing fire, and closed and locked doors. The inmates of Hell will be screaming but will not be answered; they will call for help but there will be no mercy shown to them. Then they will lose hope of ever escaping and their sorrow will increase.

At this point they will be sure of their destruction for what they earned with their deeds and they will be tortured. I thank Allah for making the believers and I successful, and I thank Him at all times. Those who win in this life win a passing life, which is temporary, so understand what I have said to you and you will win the Hereafter, which is eternal.

Everyone moves toward the Day of Judgement hoping that Allah is pleased with them and hoping for the highest levels of Paradise, but no one reaches there except those who are pious. Then the Commander of the Believers now. Ali is my brother, my friend, my minister, and my heir. His friends are my friends, and his enemies are my enemies.

His war is my war, and his peace is my peace. His words are my words, and his orders are my orders. His wife is my daughter and his sons are my sons. I created the entire creation with My power. I chose whom I wanted to be the prophets and I chose Mohammad amongst them as My love, My friend, and My pure slave, and I sent him as a messenger to My creation. I chose Ali for him and I made him his brother, his heir, his minister, and the one who leads people to the Prophet after him.

I chose Ali as My caliph on My creation, the revealer of My book, and the one who judges with My rules. I assigned Ali as the flag of guidance to prevent My creation from going astray. He is the door that leads to Me. He is My house; those who enter it will be safe from Hell. He is My castle; I will protect those who seek refuge in it from the evil of this life and the Hereafter.

He is My face; if you come toward him, I will not turn My face away from you. I chose Ali as My decisive argument on the heavens, the earths, and on every one of My creations that is on them. Ali is My generous hand to My slaves and he is the gift that I have bestowed on those whom I love.

I swore by My own Magnificence and glory that I would keep those who followed him away from Hell and I would allow them to enter Paradise. I hate those who hate him and turn away from his Wilayat, and I will put them in Hell, the worst destination. They will share the status of the prophets but they are not prophets, and they will share the status of martyrs but they are not martyrs. I am the city of wisdom and you are its door; the city cannot be entered except through its door.

Those who think they love me and hate you are liars because you are from me and I am from you. Your flesh is from my flesh, your blood is from my blood, and your soul is my soul. Your inner self is my inner self, and your outer being is my outer being. You are the Imam of my nation and my caliph on my nation after me. Blessed are those who obey you, and distressed are those who disobey you.

Your followers are successful and your enemies are the losers. Those who hold on to you are the winners, and those who abandon you will be destroyed. You and the Imams from your sons are like the ark of Nuh. Those who board it will survive, and those who stay behind will drown.

You and the Imams from your sons are like the stars; every time one disappears another one appears until the Day of Judgement. Remove this darkness from us! Ask this group who they are. We are the progeny of the Prophet. We are sons of Ali, the Wali of Allah.

We are the chosen ones whom Allah honours. We are the assured and safe ones. Allah has assigned Ali as the flag that separates between belief and hypocrisy. Therefore, those who love him are the believers, and those who hate him are the hypocrites. Ali is my confidant, the keeper of my knowledge, and my replacement in my family. I complain to Allah about his oppressors from amongst my nation. And those who want to enter Hell should follow anyone other than him.

And those companions who follow my path are the best companions of the prophets and messengers. The pure ones from amongst my wives are the mothers of the believers. My nation is the best of the nations and I will be the most followed prophet on the Day of Judgement.

My caliph at the Pool on the Day of Judgement is my caliph in this life. Ali will distribute the water to his friends and will keep his enemies away from it, just like one keeps strange camels away from the water. Those who love Ali and follow him in this world will come to my Pool on the Day of Judgement and will be with me at my level in Paradise. You are the master of the successors and the heir of the best of the prophets. You are the Highest and far above all. He is My word about which the pious ones must testify.

Those who obey him obey Me, and those who disobey him disobey Me. So give him Ali these glad tidings. Is my status so high that I am mentioned even there? So thank the Lord. Raise your head because Allah boasted about you to His angels. Amaali of Tousi Those who love Ali love me, and those who love me please Allah, and those who please Allah are rewarded with Paradise.

When they pray to Allah, He fulfills their requests. The angels seek forgiveness for those who love Ali. The gates of Paradise are open for them and they will enter from any door they choose without being questioned. Those who love Ali will not leave this world without first drinking from the Pool of Kawthar, eating from the tree of Touba, and seeing their place in Paradise. Allah eases the death process of those who love Ali and makes their graves a garden from the gardens of Paradise.

They those who love Ali will intercede for eighty of their family members and Allah gives them one city in Paradise for every hair on their body. Allah orders the Angel of Death to be kind to those who love Ali and Allah will remove the terror of Munkar and Nakeer from their graves. Their hearts will be illuminated and their faces will be shining.

Allah places those who love Ali under the shade of His Throne, accompanied by the martyrs and the truthful ones. Allah saves those who love Ali from Hell. Allah places wisdom in the hearts of those who love Ali; Allah places truth on their tongues and Allah opens the doors of His Mercy to them. Earth is the prison of those who love Ali and Allah will free them from this prison.

On the Day of Judgement, the faces of those who love Ali will be shining as brightly as the full moon. Allah will place the crown of dignity on the heads of those who love Ali and they will wear the suit of glory. Those who love Ali will pass the bridge with the speed of light and will not feel the difficulty associated with passing. Allah writes a guarantee of protection from Hell, a pass for the bridge, and a guarantee of protection from the torture for those who love Ali.

The book of deeds of those who love Ali will not be published and they will not go through the scale; they will be told to enter Paradise without being questioned. Angels shake hands with those who die with the love of the family of the Prophet, and the souls of the prophets come to visit them, and Allah fulfills all of their requests.

Bihar Al-Anwar I have a brother who loves you and respects you but he drinks wine. The lowest of the believers in status will intercede for two hundred people. However, if all of the inhabitants of the seven skies, the seven earths, and the seven seas try to intercede for someone who hates us, their intercession will not be accepted.

This sinner who loves us will not leave this world until he seeks forgiveness or until Allah torments him in his health to remove his sins. So when he dies, he will meet Allah being sinless. Our Shia are on the right path; our Shia are on the straightest path. I have mentioned his name in the previous books. I wrote in the books that Ali is your heir and I took the covenant based on this.

Who is more faithful to this covenant than Allah? Bihar Al-Anwar , , Taawil Al-Ayaat They are associated with me and I am their father. They are my family and they are created from my clay. Woe unto those who do not believe in their status! Allah loves those who love them, and Allah hates those who hate them. Bihar Al-Anwar , Amaali of Mufid And what can you say about a tree whose root is me; whose branch is Fatema; whose fertilizer is Ali; whose fruits are Hasan and Husain; and whose leaves are our Shia?!

Those who hold the branches of this tree will be led to Paradise, and those who do not hold the branches will go to Hell. Allah appointed me as a Prophet and appointed Ali as the successor. Then the Messenger of Allah started crying. O Ibn Abbas! I could see Ali and he was looking up at me. Ali spoke to me and I spoke to Ali. Then Allah spoke to me. I have assigned Ali as your successor, your minister, and your caliph after you.

So let Ali know because he can hear you. Ali replied to their Salaam, and I saw that the angels were pleased that Ali had replied to their Salaam. We swear by Allah, who sent you as a Messenger, that all of the angels became happy when Allah appointed your cousin, Ali. Now they have asked permission from Allah to look at his face and Allah granted them permission. So I knew that I had not stepped foot anywhere without it being uncovered for Ali and without Ali seeing it.

Advise me. I swear by Allah, who sent me as a prophet, that Allah will not accept the good deeds of any slave without first questioning him about his love for Ali bin Abi Taleb, and Allah knows the truth. So if the slave had the Wilayat, Allah will accept all of the deeds of that slave, despite his shortcomings. If the slave did not have the Wilayat, Allah will not question him about anything else and will order him to be taken to Hell.

I swear by Allah, who sent me as a prophet, that Hell is harsher on those who hate Ali than it is on those who believe Allah had a son. Even if all of the high-ranked angels and all of the prophets hated Ali, which they do not, Allah would torture them in Hell.

One of the signs of those who hate Ali is that they elevate people who are lower than Ali above Ali. I swear by Allah, who sent me as a prophet, that Allah did not send any prophet more honourable in His eyes than me, and Allah did not appoint any successor more honourable in His eyes than my successor, Ali. Ibn Abbas narrates that he continued loving Ali just as the Prophet ordered and advised him, and that this was his most important deed. Your death has approached, so what do you command me to do?

Do not support them or associate yourself with them. When he awoke he said: O Ibn Abbas! Allah knows them those who are against Ali. I swear by Allah, who sent me as a prophet, that none of those who hate Ali or ignore his rights will leave this world without first being disgraced. Turn when he turns and accept Ali as your Imam. Be the enemy of his enemies, and be the friend of his friends. Beware of having doubts about Ali, because doubt about Ali is Kufr to Allah.

Do not elevate anyone above Ali, because if you do you are an apostate one who turns away from Islam. Taawil Al-Ayaat 87 The punishment of an apostate in Islam is death. He ordered him to follow the instructions in the letter and to read it to the people of Egypt. Salaamun Alaikum, I praise Allah. There is no god but Him. I advise you to act piously because you will be questioned. Oyoun Akhbar Al-Redha Maani Al-Akhbar O slaves of Allah! Remember that the Almighty Lord is going to take account of every one of your sins, major or minor.

If He punishes you for your sins, it will not be an act of tyranny; and if He forgives you, it will be because of His Great Mercy and Forgiveness. The slave is the closest to receiving forgiveness when he obeys Allah by worshipping Him and then seeks forgiveness. Live piously because this brings all that is good to you, and you will benefit from it more than anything else.

Verily the abode of those who guard themselves against evil those who are pious is excellent So those who work purely for Allah will be rewarded in this life and in the Hereafter. Neither darkness nor ignominy shall cover their faces. May Allah have mercy on you! Work toward this type of reward and you will receive it. The third group of believers are the pious ones. Understand that this group achieves the best reward in this life and in the Hereafter.

They get their share of this life from the people but they do not share the Hereafter with the people. Allah has allowed them to use this world to fulfill their needs: Say! O Mohammad! The pious people live the best life in this world: they eat the best of foods, they get their share of this life from the people who are interested in this life , they eat delicious food with them, they drink the best of drinks, they wear the best of clothes, they marry the best of people, and they have the best means of transportation.

They enjoy the best of this life, and in the Hereafter they will be the neighbours of Allah. Allah will grant all of their wishes. Their requests will not be denied, and their joy will not be reduced. Those of you who have any sense should look forward to this type of reward. Be pious! There is no strength nor power but with Allah, the Most Exalted. If you behave piously and follow the Messenger of Allah by loving his family, you have worshipped Allah in the best way possible; you have glorified Him in the best way possible; you have thanked Him in the best way possible; and you have fought for Him in the best way possible.

Even if those who disagree with your beliefs have longer prayers and fast more than you do, you are still the pious ones who follow the authorities appointed by Allah. And the days of those who love us are passing while they are waiting and expecting the Mercy of Allah. But the days of those who hate us are passing while they are building their places on the brink of Hell.

And it is as if the buildings of those who hate us are collapsing into Hell, while the doors of mercy are open to those who love us. So those of you who love us - enjoy the mercy. And those of you who hate us enjoy Hell, because Hell is only for you. O Hanash! Those who want to know whether they love us or they hate us should test their hearts.

If they love those who love us, they do not hate us. And if they hate those who love us, they do not love us. Allah took the covenant from the people and He made our love part of this covenant. And He has mentioned those who hate us by name in His book. We are the noble ones, and our children are the children of all of the prophets. Al-Gharaat Tuhaf Al-Oqoul Amaali Al-Mufid Amaali of Tousi , I order you to pray and to worship.

I order you to be pious. They will have no fear and they will be clothed. They will be guaranteed safety while others will be terrified; they will have no grief while others will be grief-stricken. They will be resurrected on camels that have wings made of shining gold, and these camels will be docile, without having been tamed.

The neck of the camels will be made of ruby and they will ride smoother than silk. Then the angels of the first sky sky of earth will surround the entire creation and a large tent of fire will be placed on them. Then the angels of the second sky will surround the large tent of fire, and another larger tent of fire will be placed on them.

Then the angels of the third sky will surround the large tent of fire and another larger tent of fire will be placed on them. And these tents of fire will continue up to the seventh sky. At this point, the man who had asked this question fainted. Where will Ali Shia be when all of this happens?

I do not have any family except for you because my father, my uncle, and my brother were killed in the battle. So if anything happens to you, who will take care of me? Only those slaves who believe in Allah find our love in their hearts, and those slaves resented by Allah because of their disbelief find our hate in their hearts.

Those who love us are waiting and expecting the Mercy of Allah. But those who hate us are building their places on the brink of Hell. So those of you who love us enjoy the mercy. And those of you who hate us - enjoy Hell. Understand that you are about to enter the first day of the Hereafter and the last day of this life. You used to narrate many Ahadith97 about Ali bin Abi Taleb, and it would be better for you if you did not do this.

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These platforms offer ready made trading systems. There is an increasing trend of managed trading platforms being offered by foreign exchange market forex firms. These platforms are offered by well known investment firms in Europe. Most forex investment firms offer free training programs to the potential customers regarding foreign exchange trading. These training programs provide knowledge on forex trading systems, market analysis tools, indicators, signal generators and many such information.

Potential investors should be able to understand the nature of currency trading. They should also be able to understand the role of a broker in foreign exchange trading. Foreign Exchange market players should use their trading strategies with a mindset of fair price and good faith. Forex brokers must demonstrate transparency in transactions.

The forex trading strategies used by forex players must be managed with respect to the potential risk level involved. The forex brokers must effectively manage deceptive representations and the forex capital markets. There is disturbing news out of New York which has made many investors sit up and take notice.

Shimla Yoshai was the sole director of the brokerage firm called Interbank Debit and Brokerdealer that worked on behalf of banks who were providing credit facilities to some currency speculators. These forex traders deliberately deceived the banks that they were purchasing large blocks of currencies from these banks in order to make profits.

One can only imagine the number of jobs this would have destroyed had it been exposed and acted upon by the authorities. The government discovered that Mr. Registered in England and Wales with Companies House company number At FXCM, we strive to give you the best trading experience. We offer access to the global forex trading market, with intuitive platform options, including our award-winning Trading Station.

We also provide forex education, so whether you're just getting started in the exciting world of forex trading, or you just want to sharpen the trading tools you've developed over the years, we're here to help. FXCM's liquidity providers include global banks, financial institutions and other market makers. Liquidity providers are also ranked by their order rejection rate, spreads, and latency. FXCM constantly evaluates and monitors the ranking of our liquidity providers and takes any appropriate actions if necessary aiming to provide best available price to our clients.

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Forex brokers must demonstrate transparency in transactions. The forex trading strategies used by forex players must be managed with respect to the potential risk level involved. The forex brokers must effectively manage deceptive representations and the forex capital markets. There is disturbing news out of New York which has made many investors sit up and take notice. Shimla Yoshai was the sole director of the brokerage firm called Interbank Debit and Brokerdealer that worked on behalf of banks who were providing credit facilities to some currency speculators.

These forex traders deliberately deceived the banks that they were purchasing large blocks of currencies from these banks in order to make profits. One can only imagine the number of jobs this would have destroyed had it been exposed and acted upon by the authorities.

The government discovered that Mr. He will pay a fine of 20 million dollars. This represents the largest fine ever imposed by the Internal Revenue Service on a single individual for willfully making false representations in an attempt to secure tax benefits. The tax penalties reflect the importance of managing the forex capital markets properly.

The courts are likely to uphold the decision, as this was a case where the taxpayers had suffered a significant loss and the penalties were an important component of that loss. The U. The complaint names Shimla Yoshai, along with six other individuals, including the founder of the Forex Trading Platform Company.

The complaint is also lodged against the Bank of India, which is accused of failing to prevent the currency trading platforms from being used by terrorists in Iran to execute terrorist attacks. The court is expected to issue a ruling in the near future. Liquidity providers are also ranked by their order rejection rate, spreads, and latency. FXCM constantly evaluates and monitors the ranking of our liquidity providers and takes any appropriate actions if necessary aiming to provide best available price to our clients.

Through assessing our liquidity providers' execution performance together with our internal risk management framework, FXCM may; offset the trade directly and immediately with external counterparties, match the trade against that of another client, batch and offset multiple trades in blocks, or chose to hold the other side of the trade. By holding ourselves and our liquidity providers to such high standards, we strive to provide the best possible customer experience. When a trader places an order and if FXCM chooses to hedge the positions immediately with liquidity provider s , an exact matching order is sent from FXCM to the liquidity provider that is providing the best price.

For example, a buy order in the example above would go to liquidity provider 2. Since your stops, limits, and your entry orders are invisible to these price providers, we create an environment free of price manipulation.

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