Pyrogravure motif investing
Pyrography is the process of producing a design or picture on wood. Leather, cloth, etc. by burning or scorching the material with a hot instrument. More. Un motif géométrique suggestif remonte la surface et crée de ravissants entrelacs avec Impression s'inspire de techniques de pyrogravure et, associé aux. 15Alexis Quitish, membre de la bande de Manawan, est l'un des créateurs de ces pyrogravures. 16Bien que les motifs ornementaux cités puissent être associés à un. PRICE OF BITCOIN AND ETHEREUM
Apart from an endearing drawing of a mature woman by Camille Claudel, the installation plays to the male gaze that rests upon another gender. Many contemporary women artists immediately sprang to mind. Sharon Kivland explores our sexual universe, both real and imagined, that is particularly rich in images and signs.
She often uses found objects, like stuffed animals or delicate vintage lingerie, that she transforms manually by adding text through embroidery or other such techniques. Our hopes, our desires, our anxiety and our guilt do not escape her attention. The screen print presented here is a restitution of that process. DMC : Christelle Familiari began her art practice producing knitted objects that suggested the possibility of a certain sexual utility. The forms that she creates today are in a way more mysterious, both in their materiality and in their signification.
Georgia Nelson also offers a different take on manual work that is only too often served for women, evoking a poetic and even dreamlike world. AH : At the beginning of my work exploring different semi-fictional characters Cindy Sherman was an inspiration for me. I was captivated by the manner in which she progressively masked her identity. Today she has pushed her proposition towards the clown and other grotesque figures. The photograph that we borrowed comes is an early work from the corpus «Untitled Film Stills».
And so he made a pair of speakers to resonate with a rather delicate figurine found in the permanent collection. This image entitled «The analysis of beauty» shows two men looking through telescopes at the pictures in a museum. The telescopes rise up in a rather masculine, virile manner.
The work seems to mock the absurd, gender-based way in which aesthetics have been established over the centuries. There are also works by David Shrigley and Jason Dodge. We also moved around quite a few permanent works within the museum itself. Incidently, he was also the first curator of the museum.
Over the years, other paintings had been hung around his works, without much thought as to the overall effect. We really wanted to take this opportunity to reorganize the room and try to give sense to different lines of enquiry. He died suddenly two years ago and we thought it was important to render hommage by re-exhibiting his work. During one visit to the museum, Alain told us about the history of «landscape» in painting, and how the roots of this art were to be found in ancient military actions.
Is it a sculpture, a dummy, or a decoy? Is it painting or camouflage? AH : The museum is a veritable cabinet of curiosities. Major works are hung next to paintings by relatively unknown artists. Works of art and hand-crafted objects mix with weaponry. Classical greek marble sculptures find themselves right next to bric-a-brac that you might find in a car-boot sale. This type of melting pot is an inspiration for our generation.
AH : Quite a few vertical vitrines were to be liberated through the exodus of greco-roman artefacts. We chose to invest these glass cabinets with contemporary art that developed or deviated the simplicity and purity of modernism. Ron Haselden is above all known for his big installation work using «light» as a material. One could say that these are drawings that span out into space. Recently he has developed a series of works using strip-LED lighting, specifically for this type of vitrine.
Each morning draws and shades a square on a piece of paper. Significantly,5 the crafting of coloured window glass, an activity vital to the safeguarding of old Sana'a, is scattered amongst a large number of workshops located on the outskirts of the new city. It is recommended that several glass ateliers be set up around a square in the old part of Sana'a so as to facilitate transportation, primarily with the aim of producing a blown-glass facility for coloured windowpanes.
It is recommended that energetic measures be taken to save traditional crafts from extinction. The brassware artisans, embroiderers, blacksmiths, weavers, potters and leatherworkers are facing stiff competition are threatened by the large-scale importing of cheaper, industrially-produced goods: for example, for iambiva belts, imported Syrian-made machine embroidery is replacing local handmade embroidery.
Quite possibly within the next two years - if not within the next year - the last surviving craftsmen will have vanished, taking with them their skills and traditions that are so precious for the world. It is recommended that a showroom be set up for displaying the finest handicraft products. For this reason, the consultant deemed it expedient to gain an insight into all the production potentialities of the Republic of Yemen.
This showroom should be in the city, which must remain the place for exchanges and contacts between the rural and urban communities. This revitalization entails a global approach to the national economy for reasons related to import permits, to the development of tourism, to the founding of vocational training centres, to the teaching of arts and crafts in primary and secondary schools, and to the revival of traditional skills in pilot workshops in every craft.
It is recommended that new and varied forms be found for the development of closely interrelated production and commercialization. In addition to these initial, limited training actions in the context of the two structures existing in old Sanala Samsarah Nahas and Bait Mutahaar , new life must be injected into the areas around the souk. Shops in this locality are few and far between, and it is recommended that several handicraft centres be set up to dispense training and to turn out new products tailored to suit the market demand, at the same time featuring sales outlets with showrooms displaying the latest products from each centre.
A small guidebook should be compiled containing a detailed map and itinerary starting, for example, from Bal al-Yemen or from the main mosque. This would enable visitors to find their way more easily to the centre along a route designed to reveal the rich urban landscape of old Sanala, with its dwelling places, squares, gardens, and mosques.
A district mosque with its distinctive minaret could be an additional landmark to guide tourists through the maze of streets leading to a handicraft centre. The recommendations set forth in the Handicraft Survey Report should be complied with, including notably the recommendation that co-operation be maintained with the Executive Office for the Preservation of Old Sana'a. The specific recommendations of the present report concern the programmes of the various handicraft centres proposed and their budgets.
Later chapters of this report will analyse these centres on the basis of the need for adaptation of all the handicrafts concerned. In the light of the inventory of the existing Yemeni handicrafts illustrated summary in the Annex , the main issues facing this sector of activity in the Republic of Yemen are as follows: a Weak points i i ii iii iv v vi vii Production is scarce, slow, and disorganized; the items are of only middling quality and fail to meet the high standards required to attract tourists sufficiently or to properly satisfy consumer needs lacquered finish, unduly high prices, outmoded models, etc.
Absence of product testing and lack of standardization of quality labels. Utilization of only a limited array of raw materials, whereas thesematerials actually abound in Yemen. Many raw materials are either used insufficiently or are not used at all, including gemstones, amber, lava, etc. Lack of financial inducements in the handicraft sector: artisans are unable to earn a decent living and to devote themselves exclusively to their crafts. There is a shortage of suitable tools and small machines that would help craftsmen to.
Lack of vocational training for apprentice craftsmen. Lack of outlets: both the local and the tourist markets are limited, and the exporting of products is not yet organized. There is a vast potential thanks to the existing raw materials - of which few are used and some are not used at all - for the handicraft sector gems, leather, cotton, sisal, etc. VI The presence of a large number of craftsmen- instructors qualified to teach their techniques traditional artisans who, although lacking academic credentials, are able to transmit invaluable knowledge.
In the light of the foregoing, the following measures should be implemented on the basis of the conclusions and recommendations of the Yemeni Handicraft Survey Project: Development of Yemeni handicrafts, with the upgrading and utilization of natural resources and local creative artistry. Adaptation of traditional models so as to cater to present needs and varied markets.
A wider range of goods product adaptation in each pilot workshop. The creation of new products with both new and traditional techniques for employing local raw materials, including those already being used and those not yet used. Suitable apprenticeship training for artisans in various crafts with a view to achieving professionalism a training programme in each pilot workshop. Providing incentives to encourage investments in the handicraft sector for the improvement of craftsmen's economic and social conditions, and reducing the number of handicraft items involving the use of imported industrial products.
Providing marketing facilities, attractive premises and new outlets for handicraft products continuous official exhibits, and showrooms in each specialized workshop. Promotion of handicrafts through appropriate advertising and incentive campaigns designed to induce the public to purchase handicraft items. For which specific sectors is it necessary? At which levels is it necessary?
Since the vocational training programme must concentrate simultaneously on handicraft techniques new equipment programme and art training, creation of new products , with particular emphasis on designs for utilitarian objects, the handicraft items9 made in Yemen should be mainly geared to everyday use. Tourists are interested in originality typically Yemeni features , and sound quality and good finishing. The number of handicraft workers men and women will be on the basis of the restoration of old Sanala, of the market potential, and of the utilization of local raw materials.
The various workshops proposed involve two priorities, i. The Survey lists recommendations for specific groups of handicrafts. The priority goal is the revival and preservation of threatened handicrafts, including silver jewellery, gemstones, cutting, polishing, weaving, leatherwork and wood carving. The second part of the Handicraft Survey addresses those crafts that were not dealt with in the first part.
Ironmongery, brass- and copperware, pottery, window glass and iambiyas, the trades which are flourishing and reliable, have not been studied for quite different reasons. The principal Survey recommendation will be indicated for each craft. The development programme submitted in the present report is global. The majority of the craftsmen in the Republic of Yemen have little or no experience in assessing the social and economic realities related to their own work.
Many handicrafts are declining. Certain of them are moribund. The plan proposed would allow for the creation-of five hundred new jobs during three years and the training of 2, apprentices in the sector at the same time. The Arab Countries' Handicraft Centre project is very important.
Based in the old part of Sana'a, with the prospect of action by the Arab countries, it emerges as the only project geared to solving all the operational problems of a national centre instructors, managers, funding programme, etc. The investment necessary for setting up and running the centres will be justified by the creation af jobs and by the maximum utilization of Yemeni raw materials. With creatively designed wares, handicrafts would become highly important for the economic development of the Republic of Yemen.
Handicraft exports represent a major source of foreign currency in those countries in which exporting is organized. See the economic justification of this programme in Part VI1 of the present report. In co-operation with the Executive Office for the Preservation of Old Sana'a, a plan should be drawn up for restoring the premises of the various handicraft centres10 proposed.
The following is a list of the eight planned handicraft centres. Pottery and ceramics centre: i Pilot workshop for traditional pottery. Metalwork centre: i Pilot workshop for blacksmithery, with modern forge. Centre for architecture-related handicrafts The variegated architecture of the Republic of Yemen is exemplary and unique.
It stands out as a model of the art of building without architects. It manages to be popular and spontaneous in full harmony with the natural environment. One12 feature of traditional Yemeni architecture is its use of local raw materials: - Stone in the mountainous areas.
The structures made with the above materials involve the participation of several different craft corps: a Freestone work: i The mullans were designed on the basis of the builders' requirements. The usta decided on the various ways of stone cutting depending on the site facades, window arches, angle stone, friezes, etc. This is a handicraft that could be developed for the tourist market, including ashtrays, plates, lamps, etc.
Gypsum is also used as a distemper for facade elements. Each area has its own style of decoration. Each element - doors, friezes, windows, moucharabiehs - is a pretext for decoration, in the traditional akray of geometric and symbolic motifs. The carving of gypsum fanlight screens is one of the skilled crafts of the Republic of Yemen.
This is still a major handicraft activity. Thewindow- glass shages and motifs are extremely varied. Every windowpane is made to measure. Most of the coloured glass is imported from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and is quite expensive. The colour range is limited red, yellow, blue and green : to obtain a broader range, the glassworkers sometimes insert bits of plastic between two layers of glass the plastic being reprocessed from plastic bags.
The manufacturing of window glass requires no particular assistance, since it is not in danger from industrial production. However, in order to reduce cost prices and to enlarge the colour range, it would be advisable to set up a small glass-blowing workshop in old Sana'a. One local artisan has taken the initiative of making small windowpanes for tourists. He designs models based on patterns taken from the old houses in Sana'a.
This kind of handicraft should be developed and encouraged. Wood-working: i Wood-working products sculptured, carved, turned woods have been largely insignificant over the past twenty years. There are several reasons for this situation, as follows: - Local wood is in scant supply and imported wood is very costly. This traditional technique could be carried on with the use of local raw materials, such as coral, amber and horn.
The damascene craftsmen who make iambiva handles and sheaths could participate in this operation for example, Muhammad Ali an Nume. Nails for ironmongery istars are continuing to be made in various sizes by the souk blacksmiths. It would be possible to cover wooden chests with nail-head work. Woodcraft workshop proqramme One problem for tourists who purchase wooden items is that the lumber is seldom kiln-dried, meaning a high potential level of cracking in air-conditioned and centrally heated premises.
A solar lumber dryer should be seriously considered for the Republic of Yemen. In the pilot workshop, it would be possible to produce laminated wood for turning out good-quality objects. Carving and fairly intricate turning are possible, and attractive new designs could be developed.
The natural beauty of various woods and the potential in traditional and contemporary designs are the objectives for wood-carving, wood-turning and furniture-making. For the tourist market, consideration should be given to varied aspects of wood crafts, such as kit-assembly items children's furniture and toys.
Sets of three small nested tables, wooden spice chests in various sizes and traditional chairs and beds serir in kit form would also be worthy of attention. Wood-carvinq programme I This programme includes an inventory of supplies woods, tools, small machines and other products and specialized training: a The pricing of4 carved products and their competitiveness.
The basketry centre Basketry in the Republic of Yemen has its applications in all kinds of functions involving a great variety of forms, from the simplest to the most sophisticated, including prayer mats, hats, grain-storage receptacles, trays, sundry food baskets, incense baskets, camel muzzles, etc. The basic, changeless requirements of daily living determine and inspire the forms carrying, hunting, etc. Basketry has survived the most successfully of the handicrafts, and has not had to compete with imports or machine- made products.
The raw materials for basketry are inexpensive. Each region is distinguished by its specific resources and cultural tradition. The techniques are secret and are handed down from generation to generation. In the Saada area there is namass grass, dyed red, green or black, used for making baskets with leather bottoms; in the Tihama area, there are daum-palm leaves, and spins, and nakhl date-palm leaves, stems, and spins.
However, many raw materials and techniques either are not being used at all or are being insufficiently used. For example, in the Tihama area, floor mats are made of sisal, banana leaves and fibre. From these latter materials it is possible to obtain a strong, flexible, silky yarn for weaving and rope-making. In banana-producing countries, banana leaves are commonly used for producing sturdy baskets and furniture particularly in Haiti and Africa.
The objectives of the basketry centre are as follows: a To provide facilities for interested craftsmen for upgrading their products by adopting a new technology at present, the artisan's only tool is a small knife used for cutting and peeling stems. A 50 percent time-saving could be achieved by the use of a machine for cutting and splintering: this is a small, manually-operated machine which can be adapted for use with all the other raw materials.
Production costs should be low and product prices hence more competitive. The coiled basket technique, for making baskets out of grass namass , is used for various baskets in the Saada and Raada areas. The two structural parts of a coiled basket are the core, or foundation material, and the stitching or sewing material.
Many different kinds of ropes, cords and fibres can be used as core material, and a wide variety of patterns and designs is possible. The stitching material holds the coils together and gives the basket its colour, texture, and surface design.
In the stitching, it is possible to use fabric strips that are tied together: the various textures and colours enable very interesting designs. The raw material is quite cheap, since it can include scraps of used fabrics from dressmakers, tailors, clothing manufacturers. To achieve organized production, the basketry centre should have full facilities for training and producing.
Baskets are the ideal tourist item. Production should be adapted so as to yield a variegated range of sizes, colours, and uses. Each basket must belong to a category and must not be an isolated item. For example, there can be nested trays, in red or yellow only, with three basic shapes square, round and oval and three different sizes nested baskets are easy to pack and crate for export.
The recommendations of the basketry survey are as follows: With the raw materials and skills in hand, it is recommended that attention be focused on adapting these skills so as to develop new basketry products. Strict quality control should be instituted in order to maintain a continuity of high standards. The basketry centre should also have facilities for the fibre programme, as follows: i Cutting, splitting, and trimming with small machines if possible.
Pilot workshops of the basketry centre: i Workshops for the various techniques involving local plant fibres wattle work, lattice work, plaiting, coiling. Weavinq Textile production should be centred on the raw materials, cotton, wool and hair, corresponding to two different areas: Cotton The Tihama region is famous as the cotton-raising area of the Republic of Yemen.
The weavers' villages are Bait al-Raqih and Al-durayhimi. The products are masnaf, futah and sittara. The cotton in this area is purchased directly by the Yemen textile corporation for producing cloth in the Sana'a cotton mill. Cotton from the Tihama region is not used by the weavers, who buy their cotton, imported from China or India, from commercial dealers.
For the weaving of a bedspread cm x cm , Chinese sewing cotton costs about YR when in fine density, 70 epc [warp] and 16 pp cm [weft]. The finished bedspread is sold for YR. The Bait al-Faqih weavers are obliged to offer tourists cheaper YR bedspreads imported from India. After the present generation of weavers has passed away, there will be only one individual left to transmit this skill.
The present weaving potential is 1. With counterbalanced looms fitted with batten-flying shuttles, six metres could be woven in one day, in inch widths 1. Number of new jobs potentially created: spinning, 30 knitted fabrics, 20 dyeing, for each specialized village. The weavers should be encouraged to buy spun Yemeni cotton in bulk from the Sana'a cotton mill. In Taiz, the pit treadle loom is used for weaving woollen fabrics this loom was used in Persia, Egypt and the Sudan , with one man weaving 1.
Among the products is the Yemeni men's wrap-around skirt maawaz , which was originally woven from unfinished cotton, but which today is made entirely of acrylic yarn imported from china. The price is YR in the Taiz souk.
There are also imitations, imported from Thailand and Korea, priced at from 80 to YR. Wool and hair There are two major wool areas: the eastern plateau, with Saada, Marib and Al-Souf; and the central high plateau, with Raada and the Dhama Khamir area.
The products include rugs shelma , small rugs used for carrying grain za'al ; vests abbah. The rugs sell for 1, YR, the prices depending on the size of the rug and the quality of the wool fineness of the weaving. Productivity is very low with the use of the traditional horizontal ground loom the problem is the same as that with the ground loom used for cotton weaving.
The product range is quite limited. The spinners are women:. By intermingling goat and camel hair with black or white wool, it is possible to create new threads with carding hand- carding. For spinning and unwinding, small machines spinning wheels are necessary in order to ensure good quality and competitively priced products. At the present time, raw material costs are high. The recommendation of the Handicraft Survey is: "Government action should be taken to curb the rising influx of acrylic yarn and threat imports.
Local material, wood and cotton should be used preferably to imports if cloth production is to be made more economical. Looms to increase efficiency and productivity should be introduced. I'19 Adaptation of the existing ground loom is impossible. Training would be necessary for the weavers cotton and wool with the new looms proposed.
The prototype counterbalanced looms equipped with batten-flying shuttles should be made locally by woodworkers in the old city of Sanata. In view of the limited product range for each raw material cotton and wool , it would be necessary to create an array of new models suited to local needs and catering to the tourist market. Embroidery Hand embroidery is on the wane in the face of competition from machine embroidery and cheaper imports from Syria and other countries.
For example, a pair of trouser cuffs sirwaal takes approximately two hours to embroider by machine and sells for 80 YR, whereas a pair of hand-embroidered cuffs takes seven days and sells for YR the best quality costs YR. Among the embroidered products, the commonest and most numerous are the jambiva belts, together with the stiff hats for judges qaawaa'q. Most of the iambiva belts are machine- embroidered and imported from Syria and Saudi Arabia. Hand-embroidery is labour-intensive andhighlyuneconomical.
As concerns the raw materials, gold, silver, and copper threads are imported from France and cotton is increasingly being imported from China at the present time. Acrylic and nylon yarns in strong colours are unsuitable for the tourist market. The recommendation of the Handicraft Survey is: "Embroidery in the Republic of Yemen should be revived. Machine embroidery should be encouraged and guided under the auspices of the handicraft proj ect. With the women's sector activity set up at Bait Mutamar, there should be training in rug-making and hand-embroidery.
However, it would be necessary to set up a new pilot workshop specializing in machine embroidery training for both men and women with patterns taken from every region of the Republic of Yemen. It would be possible to create embroidery items for the tourist market, including wearing apparel, bags, table linens, place mats, etc.
For the jambiya belts, the material used is DMC imported cotton, but it would be possible to use sisal and plant fibres banana fibre coloured with strong vegetable dyes. Dveinq Dyeing is on the decline in the Republic of Yemen. Ikat cotton is moribund. Zabid, on the Tihama coast, was the centre for indigo dyeing. In , there were indigo-dyeing workshops associated with weaving centres in the Zabid area.
In , there was only one workshop. The indigo used is not local, but is imported from Germany; the same is true for calico dyeing,20 imported from Pakistan. In old Sanala, one elderly man is continuing to employ the Iltie-and-dyell technique raas mushmuq , producing dyed face veils. The leaves of the qarad tree genus acacia have been used since time immemorial for dying reddish-coloured leather.
Dyes for weaving, basketry, and leather would be taught in the pilot workshop. Today, because ofthe social and economic upheaval, the art of dyeing is threatened with extinction. High-quality chemical dyes for producing the best colours are expensive. The colour depends on the mordant tannic acid, alum, chrome, etc. Vegetable dyes are obtained from fruits, flowers, skins, barks, and the roots and stalks of various plants and trees. Such dyes have the advantage of being naturally abundant in nearly all the areas of the Republic of Yemen.
A systematic inventory will be necessary. With vegetable dyes, it is possible to employ various techniques, including I1resist1l dyeing, tie-and-dye, plansi, tritik, batik, etc. The combination of several techniques, such as plangi knotting and plaiting and tritik enables the production of a wide range of patterns and designs.
In the textile centre, it will be necessary to have a pilot workshop for vegetable dyes and llresistll dyeing in order to make these new products. Pilot workshops of the textile centre: 3 a Weaving workshop cotton, wool and hair : i Carding and spinning small machines. The jewellery centre A. Silver jewellery The number of silversmiths in old Sana'a has declined from 27 in to 20 today. The reasons for this decline are the same as those for other crafts, i.
Silver work has been replaced by old work in today's market. In Saada, there are 14 silver metal-working shops, because of the presently existing Jewish community. Formerly, the main source of raw materials was melted-down coins, such as the Maria- Theresa thaler 80 percent silver. Today, certain jewellers are importing silver ingots. In the silver souk in old Sana'a suq al-Fiddah , there are many silver dealers retailers of antique items selling goods to tourists who proceed to take their purchases out of the Republic of Yemen.
This is a serious problem. These antique objects will be gone, with few new products to take their place. Of the 20 workshops remaining, only six are engaged in contemporary production. As concerns products, the silversmiths are engaged inmaking repairs and alterations and in remodelling old jewellery pieces.
The contemporary silver output includes cosmetics bottles kajahl , rings, pendants, and occasional silver dagger sheaths on a commission basis. The recommendation of the Handicraft Survey is: "The handicraft development project has as a priority the revival and resuscitation of threatened crafts.
Silver jewellery is without a doubt in this category, so it is a recommendation of this survey that retraining inputs be directed to the benefit of this sector". Goldsmithery The change that occurred in the number of gold and silver workshops in old Sana'a from to is most striking. In22 there were five gold jewellery craftsmen, whereas in there were of them.
The reason is the current popularity of gold on the local market: gold is more malleable than silver, it is not normally subject to corrosion, and it is a sound investment. In order to create new products and to achieve competitive prices, it will be necessaryto mechanize the equipment cutting- head on a gold-engraving machine. Gemstones semi-precious qems Gemstones are still hand-worked in Anis, the Dhamar province area, Khawlan al-Tiyyal, Sanala province and the Bani-Hushesh area; however, this activity is on the verge of extinction because of the slow and laborious nature of production.
The Handicraft Survey reports that the polishing of gemstones is barely surviving in Sana'a and in the Bani-Hushesh area. There are three craftsmen in the old city of Sanala working with the uncompetitive, traditional methods used in the Republic of Yemen. Polished gemstones are imported from India. This is a major sector, one that has to be equipped with small, modern machines. In the Republic of Yemen, there are also non-mineral raw materials, such as amber, in enormous quantities, in addition to very hard coral and pearls from the Red Sea.
The recommendation from the Handicraft Survey is: "It is demonstrated that gemstone crafting is an ancient, traditional activity on the verge of being extinguished, so it squarely meets the criteria for inclusion in the handicraft projects in progress1'. Training programmes in gemstones will be necessary in view of the new machines being used in modern jewellery-making lapidary craft.
It will also be necessary to encourage and motivate new ideas and techniques, as well as to reinforce basic principles and ideas for using local gemstones in various quantities. Fancy iewellery For the use of local raw materials, it is. The various raw materials gemstones, d amber, coral, stones4, seashells, wood, day, horn, etc. The standard of design is highly variable. The pilot workshop for fancy jewellery must co-operate closely with other handicraft centres that specialize in particular techniques so as to obtain the sundry elements that may be required for the creation of new samples.
The fancy jewellery workshop could study the matter of receptacles for local products, i. For these four different activities - silver jewellery, gold jewellery, gemstone products and fancy jewellery - it will be necessary to set up a pilot workshop for each technique, outfitted with modern tools and up-to-date equipment.
For fancy jewellery, the small machines are difficult to finance, but the craftsmen will have to have the requisite jewellery-crafting tools, including the following: a Planishing hammers for forging. The national jambiya centre Jambiya work is Yemen's second most important handicraft ranking after window-glass manufacturing : "The continued proud possession and wearing of the iambiya by virtually every adult male citizen has ensured a providential market and prosperity for the craftsmen producing what became the enduring national symbol of Yemen.
Although a large local market exists for the iambiya, only the combining of the various elements is a native activity: all these elements are imported. Jambiya prices depend on their sundry component parts, and each part corresponds to a special handicraft. Daqqer blades naslah The quality of the blades is of prime importance.
The blades are no longer made by souk blacksmiths, but are imported from Syria, Saudia Arabia and Egypt. The only craft still extant is that involving the polishing of the imported blades. For the metalwork centre, it would be desirable to train apprentices in the making of dagger blades. They could be taught by older workers. Blades could be processed by the jewellery workshop via various techniques, including embossing zakhrafa , repousse work buruz , chasing napsh , engraving hafr , the application of intricate arabesque patterns and the inscription of the owner's name.
Qualitv of the handles Certain jambiyas with antique rhinoceros horn handles can fetch very high prices up to 30, Y. Before the instituting of the international ban, Yemen was the foremost importer of rhinoceros horn, which is now extremely rare: cattle horns are cheaper. Today, the latter are imported from India.
The horn is sometimes inlaid with silver motifs damascening. The handle is called an as'adi, and when it shows the patina of time, it is referred to as a savfani. For handle-making, it would be advisable to use Yemen cattle horns, which are not being used. In addition to its utilization for handles, horn can be employed for the making of various utilitarian or ornamental objects, such as combs and fancy j ewellery.
With the pyrogravure technique, decorations can be applied by rubbing the tip of a pokerwood tool a wood-burning pen , which has an oblique, flat end, over the horn surface to create motifs. Handles can also be made of amber, which is easy to cut and The drawback to amber is that it is easily imitated The fact of the existence of vast quantities of raw materials in the Republic of Yemen and their commerciai value should justify a particular interest in the manufacturing of daggar handles.
Handles made of local precious woods could be inlaid with gemstones, as is done today, and with silver nails - called istars - manufactured by souk jewellers. These handles could also be decorated with the pyrogravure technique. Sheaths The souk carpenters cut out the wooden frames of -the sheaths, which are then assembled and upholstered in Leather.
This is still an actdive handicraft in the souk. Certain sheaths are covered in chiselled silver and even in gold. Co-operation would be necessary with the jewellery workshop for the creating of new sheaths, some of which are elaborately chiselled and very expensive. Quality of the belt
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The first is Tradestation. Tradestation is a full-service online broker with excellent desktop and smartphone access. The platform is integrated with the ClickIPO app so that you can place orders on the app, and allocated shares show up in your Tradestation account. Read my Webull review for IPO investing and get free stock for joining and funding your account. Click here for a complete list of the best online brokers for IPO investing.
A newer broker that empowers investors to do the same thing is M1 Finance. On M1, investors create customized pies, including whatever stocks or ETFs the investor wants to own in pre-determined allocation percentages. Every time the investors adds more funds to the account, M1 Finance automatically distributes new funds into the portfolio as allocated.
You can easily use the pies as a replacement for motifs. Read my M1 Finance review here to understand how it works. The platform is more intuitive than Motif Investing. Still, the IPO access was not enough of a value for me to maintain an additional investing account. I closed my account to consolidate and simplify my overall investing strategy. Many robo-advisor customers are investing for retirement or for long-term goals.
Other robo-advisors also have more research and analytical tools for you monitor the progress of your portfolio. Robo-advisors typically have more advanced features like tax-loss harvesting , direct indexing or access to human advisors. Another thing to keep in mind is that this company has a lot of plans, options and fee structures.
If you are looking for the simplest, most straightforward investment plan, this might not be the best choice. Just about every plan has some fine print or exception. There are a number of possible fees. You can find explanations for everything on the company's website, but it could take a bit of searching. This option is probably best-suited for investors who are financially secure and already have portfolios designed for their long-term retirement goals. Motif Investing offers some of the lowest trading fees.
Investors who want to trade individual stocks or ETFs should take note of these low fees. Other robo-advisors offer more tools for monitoring your portfolio, increasing your returns and decreasing you tax bill. There may be some trade-offs though. Most robo-advisors create portfolios with ETFs and no individual stocks.
This one uses individual stocks in its portfolios. One common management practice you will find from robo-advisors is tax-loss harvesting. Tax-loss harvesting helps minimize the taxes you owe on your stock market gains. As an example, Wealthfront offers tax-loss harvesting on all accounts. It charges a flat-rate, annual management fee of 0. Direct indexing is an advanced form of tax-loss harvesting that analyzes the movements of individual stocks not just an ETF as a whole in order to find trades that maximize your returns while still minimizing taxes.
Some robo-advisors also give you access to human financial advisors. Betterment offers a management plans that give you unlimited access to an advisor over the phone. The minimum for this plan is higher than the minimum with Motif Investing but Betterment also offers a more basic plan with no minimum and an annual fee of 0.
It offers features from both and is well-suited as a secondary platform for investing. You can create a portfolio with a more traditional robo-advisor, like Wealthfront or Betterment , to take advantage of their investing resources. Use that portfolio to save for retirement and then use Motif Investing to trade individual stocks or ETFs that interest you. Motif Investing is a great choice for hands-on investors who want invest in companies that align with their personal values.
These trading fees could turn out to be even lower with some of the subscription trading plans. Other robo-advisors will provide more tools for analyzing your investments and for minimizing your tax bill. People who are new to investing or prefer a simple, straightforward plan should look for other robo-advisors.
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